U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 400 – 1000 mg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 500 – 2000 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Milk, Molasses, Nuts, Dandelions, Tofu, Shellfish, Eggs, Wheat, Collards, and Legumes.
Tissue Stores: Bones and Teeth (99% as Hydroxyapatite)
Normal Functions: Bone development / maintenance; Blood clotting; Neuromuscular activity; May retard elevated cholesterol and lipids in the bloodstream; Regulates the permeability of cell membranes; Required for the activation of several enzyme systems, heartbeat regulation, blood clotting.
Deficiency States: Osteoporosis; Rickets, Osteomalacia; Hypoglycemic on increased protein diets; Tetany; Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension; Tooth decay / periodontal disease; Glucose intolerance.
Toxicity: May occur with increased intake or with abnormalities in calcium/phosphorus ratio.
Exceptional Needs: Childhood; Pregnancy; Lactation; Infancy; After periods of prolonged bed-rest, ie., Hospitalization; Hyperthyroidism; Osteoporosis; Hypertension; Hypochlorhydria.
U.S. Adult R.D.A: 50 – 200 mcg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 50 – 1,000 mcg / Day
Dietary Sources: Meat products, Cheese, Whole grains, Milk, Eggs, Brewers yeast, Mushrooms, and Peppers.
Tissue Sources: Skin, Fat, Adrenals, Brain, Spleen, and Muscle.
Normal Functions: Essential part of glucose tolerance factor required in insulin potentiation; Stimulates both fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.
Deficiency States: Diabetes mellitus; Possibly deficient in alcoholics and post operative patients; Hyperlipidemia; Arteriosclerosis; Disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism, taste and smell.
Toxicity: None noted
Exceptional Needs: Diabetes mellitus; Hypoglycemia; Elderly patients because of poor absorption; Possibly deficient in patients with schizophrenia; Patients on highly refined (processed) carbohydrate diet.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 3 – 5 mcg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 5 – 25 mcg / Day
Dietary Sources: Kidney, Beef, Lamb, Veal, Poultry, Ocean fish, Milk, Cheese and Eggs.
Tissue Stores: Bone, Muscle, and Kidney
Normal Functions: Intrinsic part of Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin); Required for the synthesis of Methionine from Homocysteine and the conversion of Methylmalonic acid to Succinyl CoA for fatty acid synthesis; Necessary for Folic Acid synthesis.
Deficiency States: Certain forms of macrocytic anemias, ie, Pernicious anemia; Hypochlorhydria.
Toxicity: Increased intake may cause hyperthyroidism and proliferation of other cancerous tissues; Toxicity increased by excessive ethanol ingestion.
Exceptional Needs: Hypertension; Ethanol abuse; Hypochlorhydria; Vegetarian diets and Pernicious anemia.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 2 mcg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 1 – 4 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Liver, Fish, Soybeans, Meats, Seafood, Nuts / seeds, Whole grains, and Legumes.
Tissue Stores: Liver, Brain, and Bile.
Normal Functions: Co-enzyme for energy metabolism; Anti-inflammatory; Maintains blood vessel wall integrity; Important for iron absorption and utilization; Necessary for SOD formation; Helps protect myelin sheath around the nerves.
Deficiency States: Excessive Vitamin “C” intake; Hepatitis; Puerperal insanity (Post partum depression); Iron deficiency anemia; Hyperlipidemia; Arteriosclerosis; Osteoporosis; and Hypothyroidism.
Toxicity: Increased levels may lead to mental / physical fatigue; Wilson’s disease; Depression; Irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Exceptional Needs: Women on estrogen therapy; Increased tissue levels of zinc; Premature birth; certain forms of microcytic anemias; Infectious hepatitis.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 10 mg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 10 – 30 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Meats, Spinach, Soybeans, Dried legumes, Clams, Oysters, Dried fruits, and Egg yolk.
Tissue Stores: Liver and Spleen
Normal Functions: Oxygen transport in blood and muscle tissue; Involved in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation; Helps improve muscle function.
Deficiency States: Achlorhydria; Increased protein and phosphate in the diet, Menorrhagia; Estrogen therapy; Premature infancy; Liver disease; Cancer; Certain anemias; Copper deficiency; Excessive calcium intake.
Toxicity: Increased levels may lead to hemochromatosis and hepatic cirrhosis.
Exceptional Needs: Pregnancy; Menstruation; Acute / chronic blood loss; Vegetarian women; Infancy, especially pre-maturity; Bacterial infections; Liver disease; Cancer and Estrogen therapy.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 300 – 350 mg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 200 – 1,000 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Whole grains, Nuts, Seeds, Cocoa, Milk, Green vegetables, Seafood, and Brown rice.
Tissue Stores: Bone (60% of body stores), Muscle, and Liver.
Normal Functions: Bone structure; Stabilizes the ATP intracellular structure; Co-enzyme in 80% of all enzymes, Kreb’s Cycle and reactions with protein and nucleic acid synthesis; Involved in thyroid/parathyroid production.
Deficiency States: Post-surgical or burn patients; Increased calcium intake; Cirrhosis of the liver; Diabetic acidosis; Arteriosclerosis; Leukemia; Tetany; Sudden cardiac death; Hyper-aldosteronism.
Toxicity: May cause CNS depression, anesthesis and possibly paralysis.
Exceptional Needs: Diets with increased refined carbohydrates; Diuretic therapy; Malabsorption; Decreased renal function; Malnourishment in hospitalized patients; Excessive alcohol ingestion.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 2 – 5 mg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 15 – 30 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Whole grain cereals, Leafy vegetables, Nuts and Tea.
Tissue Stores: Liver, Kidney, Pineal / pituitary glands, and Pancreas.
Normal Functions: Associated with enzymes involved in metabolism, growth / maintenance of connective tissue, bone and cartilage; Implicated in Melanin production, Fatty Acid synthesis, the formation of Membrane phospholipids and Prothrombin. Needed for Vitamin C absorption.
Deficiency States: Impaired glucose metabolism; Mucopolysaccharide and Lipopolysaccharide deficiencies; Chronic hydralazine poisoning; Psychiatric disorders; Decreased mental activity and Neurologic disorders.
Toxicity: High doses may cause hypertension and irreversible neurologic disorders; May interfere with the metabolism of other metals / minerals.
Exceptional Needs: Diabetes mellitus; Hypoglycemia; Increased dietary hydralazine; Hyperlipidemia; Certain neuromuscular disorders (epilepsy, Tardive Dyskinesia); Anorexia and Iron deficiency.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 150 – 500 mcg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 1 – 10 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Whole grains, Wheat germ, Nuts, Meats, Legumes, and Green leafy vegetables.
Tissue Stores: Liver, Kidney, Bone, and Skin.
Normal Functions: Prevention of dental caries and cancer of the esophagus; May help to prevent impotency in older males; Necessary for function of the human body.
Deficiency States: Increased dental caries; Abnormalities in amino acid metabolism; Possible deficiency in patients with esophageal cancer.
Toxicity: Increased levels may decrease body stores of Copper and Iron; Increased levels may also be associated with Gout and other bone disease processes.
Exceptional Needs: Increased refined carbohydrates in diet; Increased dental caries and possibly some forms of cancer.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 800 mg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 1,000 – 1,500 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Cod, Beef, Milk, Yogurt, Chicken, Cola beverages, High protein foods, and Grains.
Tissue Stores: Bony Skeleton, and Cell membranes.
Normal Functions: Involved in energy metabolism; Part of phospholipid metabolism; Bone and teeth structure; Intracellular buffer; Involved in Kidney / Liver functions and the production of Lecithin.
Deficiency States: Increased Plasma Calcium concentrations; Increased Parathyroid concentrations.
Toxicity: Excessive ingestion may cause Osteoporosis and severe diarrhea.
Exceptional Needs: Patients on Estrogen therapy; Increased vitamin “D” intake; Long-term Glucocorticoid and Thyroid therapy.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 1,500 – 3,000 mg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 2,000 – 5,000 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Vegetables, Fruits, Meats, Milk, Prunes, Beans, Lentils, Dates, Broccoli, and Potatoes.
Tissue Stores: Intracellularly
Normal Functions: Regulates intracellular osmotic pressure, cell membrane potential and charge, thereby controlling nerve impulse, heart rhythm, etc.; Controls blood pressure by modifying smooth muscle activity and salt excretion.
Deficiency States: Patients on highly refined carbohydrate and salt diets; digitalis therapy~ or patients with diabetes mellitus, hypotension, severe diarrhea or vomiting; Hypercholesterolemia.
Toxicity: Hyperkalemia may be seen in patients with cardiac irregularities and renal failure.
Exceptional Needs: Patients on Diuretic therapy, Prednisone, ACTH or Digitalis therapy; Abnormal glucose metabolism; Impaired cardiac functions; Adrenal hyperplasia; Cancer; Renal failure.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 25 – 200 mcg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 50 – 1000 / Day
Dietary Sources: Seafood, Liver, Kidney, Whole grains, Vegetables, Garlic and Brazil nuts.
Tissue Stores: Red blood cells, Liver, Spleen Heart, and Nails.
Normal Functions: A key component of the enzyme Glutathione Peroxidase which protects tissues, especially cell membranes from free radical pathology; Stimulates antibody production and protein synthesis in the Liver; Activates RNA and DNA.
Deficiency States: Liver disease, Possibly deficient in Sudden Infant death Syndrome; Protein calorie malnutrition; Aspermatogenesis; Cataracts, Cancer; Cardiovascular disease.
Toxicity: Liver failure; Inhibits cell mitosis; Hair loss; Chronic arthritis; Diabetes Mellitus; Renal damage; Metallic taste of the tongue.
Exceptional Needs: Bottle fed infants; Increased dietary fats; Cardiac disease or cancer patients; Patients on Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN); Cataracts; Chronic Cadmium or Mercury toxicity.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 200 mg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 1,000 – 3,000 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Buttermilk, Haddock, Milk, Processed meats and fish, Canned vegetables, and Condiments.
Tissue Stores: Bony skeleton, and Intra / extracellular spaces.
Normal Functions: Regulates extra-cellular electrolyte / cation ratio and osmotic homeostasis, thereby regulating blood volume; Conversion of essential fatty acids to phospholipids; Essential for the transport of nutrients across the cell membranes.
Deficiency States: Periods of prolonged vomiting, diarrhea and diaphoresis; Decreased calcium absorption; Decreased Vitamin “C” in the adrenals; Hypochlorhydria; Reproductive disorders.
Toxicity: Excessive intake may contribute to hypertension.
Exceptional Needs: Strenuous physical activity; Pregnancy; Diuretic therapy; Hypochlorhydria; Chronic infections; Hyperadrenalism; Excessive weight loss; Reproductive disorders.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 100 – 300 mcg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 1 – 4 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Dietary fats, Vegetable oils, Whole grains, Seafood and Liver.
Tissue Stores: Adipose tissue, Bone, Liver, Lung, and Spleen.
Normal Functions: May exhibit a lipid lowering effect by the stimulation of acetyl CoA Decyc1ase; May help to prevent dental caries; Involved in glucose metabolism and Glutathione production; Inhibits ATP hydrolyzing enzymes.
Deficiency States: Conditions with decreased red blood cell counts; Impaired iron absorption; Dental caries; Hypertrig1yceridemia; Altered lipid metabolism.
Toxicity: Excessive inhalation may cause bronchial infections, dermatitis and sore eyes.
Exceptional Needs: Hyper1ipidemias; Childhood (bone / teeth growth); Requirements increased in patients with increased tooth decay / dental caries; Excessive Vitamin “C” intake.
U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 15 mg / Day
Therapy Dose Range: 15 – 100 mg / Day
Dietary Sources: Meat, Eggs, Seafood (oysters), Milk whole grains, Spinach, Soybeans, and Sunflower seeds.
Tissue Stores: Prostate, Skin, and Retina.
Normal Functions: Necessary co-enzyme in over 90 different enzyme systems; Associated with cholesterol, protein, and energy metabolism; Required for nucleic acid synthesis and carbon dioxide transport; Essential for normal growth, healing, and immune function.
Deficiency States: Impaired RNA / DNA and protein synthesis; Chronic infections; High fiber diets; Pregnancy; Decrease growth patterns and sexual maturation; Decreased senses of taste and smell.
Toxicity: Impaired immune response; Diaphoresis; ETOH intolerance; Chronic nausea and vomiting.
Exceptional Needs: Pregnancy; Neonatal period; Childhood and adolescent; Elderly patients because of decreased absorption and intake; Patients with chronic disease processes, ie. Diabetes Mellitus.
Minerals are absolutely necessary for life. They serve as co-factors for all the biologic reactions necessary for energy, growth and repair. Many of these trace minerals are needed in as many as 200 to 300 chemical reactions within the body. Trace minerals can be given Intravenously in a doctor’s office, or taken as a supplement. In severe mineral depletion such as receiving EDTA Chelation, then a vitamin / mineral IV is needed between Chelation treatments. However, under normal circumstances a high quality supplement (meaning a wide array of minerals in a highly bioavailable state) is the best choice. If taken as a supplement, an excellent choice is minerals that are balanced in an “ionic” state providing high bioavailability to the body.
The Great Salt Lake in Utah is an excellent source for ionic minerals. The Great Salt Lake has been concentrating mineral salts in its waters for thousands of years. Fortunately, the lake avoids the build up of toxic heavy metals as they are precipitated to the sediments and deep brines of the lake. The unique processing of the lake water used to acquire ionic minerals results in a composition of “earthy salts” such as magnesium, potassium, calcium and bromides as well as the trace elements. There is very little sodium chloride or common salt as this is left in the bottom of the “holding pond” during processing. The final product provides a rich source of desired minerals including the important trace minerals.
Minerals are such an integral component of body function that it is impossible to detail all their actions in a short space. Suffice to say that the “bulk” minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium and chloride are involved in most biologic reactions. Additionally, we are now learning about the necessity of various trace elements as well. For example, selenium deficiency results in heart disease and likely even cancer. Deficiencies in copper, zinc and manganese alter the function of anti-oxidant co-enzymes causing dysfunction in these integral protective systems. Iodine is necessary for thyroid function. This is only a sampling of the known functions of minerals in the human body.
Unfortunately, studies have shown that many areas of the country where our foods are grown are deficient in one or more bulk and trace elements. As we cannot be sure that the individual foods we eat have been grown in mineral rich soil, it is critical that we supplement to insure adequate levels.
No known toxic reactions in recommended amounts.
1. McCarty MF. The case for supplemental chromium and a survey of clinical studies with chromium picolinate. J Appl Nutr 1991;43:59–66.
2. Prasad A. Discovery of human zinc deficiency and studies in an experimental human model. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:403–12 [review].
3. Weisinger JR, Bellorin-font, E. Magnesium and phosphorus. Lancet 1998;352:391–96 [review].
4. Clark LC, Combs GF, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. JAMA 1996;276:1957–63.
A Calcium and Magnesium blend must be formulated with superior ingredients and in proper mineral ratios to enhance bioavailability and absorbability. Calcium should never be taken alone. As an example for Milk drinkers: Milk contains 8 parts calcium and only one part magnesium. Calcium needs magnesium in order to be assimilated into the body. In the case of drinking milk, magnesium will be pulled out of the body so the calcium can be processed, resulting in a magnesium deficiency. A high calcium and a low magnesium ratio in the body results in many problems. We have been instructed for years to get enough calcium. Little has been said of magnesium. Therefore it is in best wisdom if you plan on supplementing your calcium intake, it must be in a proper blend of calcium WITH magnesium. Since many factors can use up magnesium in your body, including stress, I prefer a ratio of two parts calcium to one part magnesium in a supplementation.
Most individuals are aware of the benefits of calcium supplementation. Calcium is critical in the prevention of osteoporosis. Calcium, though, also appears to play a role in maintaining normal blood pressure. In addition, calcium is required by the body for blood clotting, muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Calcium may play a role in triglyceride and cholesterol reduction due to its fat binding properties within the gastrointestinal tract.
Calcium is present in dairy foods. It is also available from salmon, green leafy vegetables, tofu and sardines.
Calcium is found in many different forms within supplements. Studies of these different forms reveal the following. Calcium citrate/ malate is the best-absorbed form of this supplement. It is this form that most authorities recommend for enhanced bioavailability.
There are a number of additional factors that affect calcium absorption and use within the body including availability of specific trace minerals and Vitamin D.
How much Calcium should I take?
The National Academy of Sciences has recommended 1000 mg of calcium daily for adults ages nineteen to fifty. Adults over fifty should take 1200 mg daily. As calcium absorption and utilization in bone is dependent upon Magnesium, Vitamin D and Vitamin K, as well as specific trace minerals, supplementation with these is also necessary to maximize prevention of osteoporosis.
Side effects of Calcium:
Rarely side effects such as constipation and bloating can be seen with calcium supplements. Individuals with kidney disease and hyperparathyroidism should check with their health care professional prior to use. Calcium competes with a number of minerals for absorption therefore supplementation with a multi-mineral may be necessary to prevent decreased levels of other minerals.
While calcium is needed for muscle contraction, magnesium is needed for muscle relaxation. Think of your heart muscle. Your heart muscle, and any other muscle in your body, will have a “contraction” phase, then a “relaxation” phase. What occurs when a muscle is unable to relax? It goes into spasm. Spastic cervical (neck) muscles and other skeletal muscles are a good example. Have you ever heard of anyone who always has a very tight neck or other muscles that never seem to relax, usually therefore resulting in headaches? Muscle spasms, muscle cramps, muscle jerks, and muscle tics, eye tics, and hiccups are all caused buy a magnesium deficiency.
Modern stresses whether chemical, environmental, or mental, quickly deplete magnesium reserves, (which is often depleted faster than calcium reserves.) This often results in internal stress.
Excess calcium which has not been properly assimilated, due usually to a magnesium deficiency to process that calcium, can lead to gallstones, kidney stones, and calcium deposits on joints (often called arthritis).
Too much calcium and not enough magnesium can also cause PMS (pre-menstrual syndrome). This results in premature aging caused by the calcification of the female body parts.
As mentioned above, magnesium and calcium work together to control muscle action. With insufficient magnesium the muscles stay tense causing a cramp in the muscle. This could happen when you have too much calcium and too little magnesium. The same thing can occur in the heart, which is a muscle. The heart can go into spasm and not relax. I firmly believe this is one of the contributing causes for heart attacks. (Atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) is another very large risk factor for heart attacks.)
Magnesium deficiency can cause insomnia (inability to sleep), waking up with muscle spasms, cramps, tension and feeling uncomfortable.
Magnesium activates an enzyme located in all cell membranes. This enzyme controls the balance of sodium and potassium, keeping sodium in the fluid outside the cells and potassium inside the cells. Such a balance is essential for normal water balance, nerve cell activity and cellular energy production. Without sufficient cellular magnesium, potassium will be rapidly excreted from the body resulting in fatigue, heat exhaustion and weakness.
Magnesium is involved in over three hundred chemical reactions in the human body. It is critical in energy production, cellular replication and protein formation. Research has shown a role for magnesium in blood pressure reduction, enhanced cardiac function, improved energy in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome, improved wellness in women with PMS and improved respiratory function in individuals with asthma. Magnesium is present in a number of foods including dark green vegetable, fish, meat and beans. Despite this, at least one study has shown that most individuals do not receive the optimum amount of 425 mg daily of magnesium. Individuals taking prescription diuretics, birth control pills, as well as diabetic individuals are at increased risk for magnesium deficiency. Severe magnesium deficiency may cause muscle weakness, fatigue, abnormal heart rhythms, and depression.
How much Magnesium should I take?
The listed “optimum” amount is 300 – 500 mg daily. However I prefer a ratio of two parts calcium to one part magnesium when taking supplementation.
Side effects of Magnesium:
At recommended use no serious toxicity exists. Excess magnesium often leads to diarrhea. Individuals with kidney disease should consult their health care professional prior to use.
1. Kawano Y, Matsuoka H, Takishita S, Omae T. Effects of magnesium supplementation in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1998;32:260–65.
2. Howard JM, Davies S, Hunnisett A. Magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1992;340:426.
3. Weisinger JR, Bellorin-font, E. Magnesium and phosphorus. Lancet 1998;352:391–96 [review].
4. Weisinger JR, Bellorin-font, E. Magnesium and phosphorus. Lancet 1998;352:391–96 [review]
5. Osborne CG, McTyre RB, Dudek J, et al. Evidence for the relationship of calcium to blood pressure. Nutr Rev 1996;54:365–81.
6. Bell L, Halstenson CE, Halstenson CJ, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:2441–44.
7. Levenson DI, Bockman RS. A review of calcium preparations. Nutr Rev 1994;52:221–32 [review].
8. Levenson DI, Bockman RS. A review of calcium preparations. Nutr Rev 1994;52:221–32 [review].
9. Murray M. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Prima Publsihing, 1996.