Certified Frequency Specific Microcurrent Specialist
My information about FSM can be used free of charge for any Continuing Educational Seminar, if permission is first asked before each use on a case-to-case basis. It may not be implanted in anyone’s website under any circumstances. All rights reserved.
Clear and Simple Explanation
Deep, Detailed Explanation
Proposed Mechanism of Action
What does Frequency Specific Microcurrent do?
Principles of Biologic Resonance
Principles of Energy Wells and Stable States
Cervical Trauma Induced Fibromyalgia
Peer Reviewed Medical Studies
14 August 2019
Long Term Benefits. I don’t just want you to get over your current headache, but find out why you get those headaches in the first place so your future life can be free of headaches.
Long Term Example
1) NFL wide receiver for the Philadelphia Eagles Football team, Terrell Owens.
2) 19 December 2004 – Severe injury of lower leg.
3) Reconstructive surgery required
4) Super Bowl was scheduled in six weeks, Terrell wanted to play.
5) Surgeon declared injury would never fully heal, Super Bowl was unrealistic. Recovery was judged impossible.
6) Arrangements were made for a highly trained FSM specialist to personally treat Terrell for the next six weeks. One hour after his surgical recovery, Dr. McMakin was waiting outside the hospital in the Limousine to begin treatment immediately after surgery.
7) Terrell played in the Super Bowl and ran 157 yards.
8) He continued to play professional football for several more seasons.
9) 14 years later, in 2018 he was inducted into the Football Hall of Fame. He thanked the FSM “dream team for his recovery.
As a doctor I may use Frequency Specific Microcurrent, Clinical Nutrition with extensive laboratory testing, or a combination of both to heal my patients for long term results.
“Microcurrent” is electrical therapy, measured in millionths of an amp. Most electrical medical devices use therapies in the thousands of an amp like a tens unit. Microcurrent amperage is 1000 times less powerful. It is the exact same amount of amperage the body produces to run all bodily functions. Instead of overpowering the body with current 1000 times more powerful than needed, it works in “harmony” with the body.
“Frequency:” Electricity is delivered in oscillating wave lengths. Electricity does not run a steady current stream like water in a river. The electricity in your wall outlet vibrates at 60 cycles per second. Radio stations power their antennas with electricity that uses oscillating frequencies.
“Specific:” Every body part has very specific oscillating frequencies. Just like how each radio station must use their own, very specific broadcasting frequencies, otherwise all radio broadcasts would cancel each other and all we would hear is static.
The most profound benefits are realized when treating damages caused by Motor Vehicle Collisions and Sports Injuries. However nearly anything wrong in the human body likely can be addressed. As an example: FSM is very good at dissolving kidneys stones, as long as the correct frequency of the stone has been identified. Like a singer that can shatter a crystal glass. FSM has been used successfully in treating a wide variety of health problems.
Motor Vehicle Accidents and Sports Injuries are the most dramatic because those damages are often the most intensive. I hear this all the time from patients who had been injured years earlier:
“I’ve never been quite the same since my accident.” (Terrell never had to make this sad statement.)
Reason? Even though outwardly damages might have been corrected, or not, the damages to the vibrational characteristics of the injured tissues have been negatively altered and will remain so for life, unless appropriate medical treatment designed to this end is administered.
Each body part has a unique electronic signature, also called harmonics, or vibrations. When an injury occurs of any type, it alters the natural harmonics of the tissues, not just once but several times over. Like how a cut finger will bleed, nerves may have been damaged, a scab forms, a scar may form, calcification may occur. The cut may have also damaged tendons, ligaments or bone.
Each abnormal vibrational change must be removed, one layer at a time, like peeling the layers off an onion. FSM is the only therapy I have found that can return the abnormal harmonics, back to their original oscillation frequencies.
AAA Baseball Pitcher
Severe Auto Accident
Analysis: Stagnation of forebrain energy fields had occurred from the needles in her forehead. When released with FSM therapy, 24 years later, her cognitive functions and personality were allowed to flourish unimpeded. Thus, the little girl in her became a woman.
He was walking through his parent’s cornfield. A biplane flew overhead, spraying herbicides. His clothing was soaked. He went home to change his clothing but never showered.
He took an Amtrak train from Portland Oregon to Seattle Washington to watch a Mariners’ baseball game and meet his internet friends for the first time. He left his cane at home.
“I don’t know what to do. I’ve lived my entire life secluded. What do I do?”
No I can walk everywhere now without my cane. I am not afraid to walk any longer. What do I do?”
“There is only one thing left to do. Take dancing lessons and meet a girl, but of course.”
In 1946 a Naturopathic / Osteopathic Physician from Canada, Dr. Harry VanGelder, bought a practice that came with a frequency specific machine and a list of frequencies from 1922.
In 1983, Dr. Carolyn McMakin, a Chiropractor in Portland Oregon was attending a medical seminar, as all licensed doctors are required to fulfill annually. She just had a hysterectomy and was in a lot of pain. An old fellow with a grumpy voice asked her: “What’s wrong with you?” She told him there was no cure for her pains. He answered back, “I can fix that,” then walked away. That was Dr. Harry VanGelder. He had purchased Dr. Abrams old practice and discovered Dr. Abrams old research papers. Dr. Van Gelder began continuation of Dr. Abram’s research.
Dr. McMakin asked a friend, Dr. George Douglas, another Chiropractor and also an Electrical Engineer, to look into this form of medicine. Dr. Douglas began working with Dr. Van Gelder in 1983 and brought home a copy of Dr. Abram’s list.
Dr. McMakin began using FSM on a few of her select patients in 1995.
She began to get a few other doctors involved in 1996 for the purpose of early research.
FSM was first formally taught in a classroom setting in 1997 at the National College of Naturopathic Medicine in Portland Oregon.
Dr. McMakin asked these early pioneers of FSM to help her accumulate clinical data to see if FSM is a viable and effective form of medicine. FSM doctors wrote case studies and reported that FSM proved consistent benefits and effects, which were both teachable and reproducible.
Research in animals and humans and clinical results accumulated over the next 20 years.
FSM is now being taught all over the US and also in many developed countries in the world.
References: Several years of annual continuing educational seminars in FSM. (I also write the index for all of Dr. McMakin’s FSM seminar slide shows.)
Both Dr. McMakin and Dr. Douglas have become very close allies and friends to me.
I have been specializing in neuro-muscular therapy for auto and sports injuries since 1985 while still a medical student. I wrote specific medical protocols using equipment available at that time for auto and sports injuries, which was then taught to other NCNM students.
I began researching, then specializing in FSM since 1996. I found it to be far superior for auto and sports injuries when compared to any protocol I wrote in medical school using all available forms of medical equipment.
New discoveries in FSM are being made. I have personally made significant discoveries which are now being taught as part of the Standards of Care for FSM practitioners.
1) Spinal Cord treatment, allowing the current to run directly through the spinal cord from anterior to posterior, dissecting the body.
2) Spinal Disc treatment, allowing the current to run directly through the spinal cord and discs from anterior to posterior, dissecting the body.
3) Investigative / Initial / Experimental Study that lead to this discovery: My wife (Lue Jean) needed all her lumbar discs fused into one solid mass of bone and metal. She was bedridden. I developed a protocol to heal her discs by running healing / corrective frequencies from her abdomen to her lumbar area, dissecting her body, vectored so all electrical current would pass directly through all lumber discs and spinal cord. It took four hours per day times 12 weeks. At Dr. McMakin’s next FSM seminar in 1998 I reported my findings. Dr. McMakin chewed me up and down for this potentially dangerous method. Then I asked Lue Jean to come around the corner. McMakin was impressed. She asked me for more details. This changed the way we think of FSM. It is safe to allow the FSM current to pass directly through the body, even the spinal cord.
The only problem is: If I tease Lue Jean, now she chases me all over the house. (Fun.) 21 years later the healing I did to her back is still holding.
4) A very specific type of kidney stone that would not respond to conventional FSM protocols. (This patient was in very serious trouble.)
5) Vestibular injuries. (Loose ability to keep balance with eyes closed.)
To date, seven patients came to my clinic with vestibular injuries. Some had completely lost their ability to drive. The others, driving was “risky.” I have successfully treated all seven. However my discovery has not yet been accepted by the FSM community, likely because all forms of medicine have declared there is no cure for vestibular injuries.
Unfortunately, FSM is still being opposed by the majority of mainstream medicine, which is adamant that surgery and drugs are the only viable form of medicine. Fortunately however, there are a select few medical doctors who are well versed in FSM technology and what it can offer patients. Like the medical doctor who forced the auto insurance company to reopen the 25 year old female’s PIP claim, then referred that patient for FSM treatment. Thankfully, that doctor understood it is not about which doctors get all the business. It is first about healing the patients.
FSM is also opposed by some chiropractors and massage therapists, I believe, because of ignorance and/or it threatens their income when they have to share PIP claim income with other doctors. The medical community calls these types of doctors, “ambulance chasers.” Fortunately, some chiropractors and massage therapists truly recognize and embrace the effectiveness of FSM technology, and once again understand the patient comes first, not the doctor’s income.
Reference: Personal experiences from many years of private practice.
All biological life on this planet produces a form of energy called ATP. It could be likened onto your car automatically producing its own fuel.
Remember, this therapy is “microcurrent” in amperage. An intensity of energy that corresponds to the energy of all living matter. When FSM is administered, because the energy is of the same magnitude of what is occurring inside cells, with this increase in corresponding energy, ATP production is elevated 500% over normal.
This discovery of 500% increase in ATP production is well known in some circles of medicine, but the application is not known to some business executives who are looking to develop new products.
Years ago I had a sports underwear manufacturer ask me to help them develop a line of sports underwear that would increase internal energy for athletic competition. At first I thought someone was attempting to play a joke on me. Then I discovered these guys were serious! I politely explained they do not know the mechanism of action of FSM. The increased production of ATP was only a side benefit to the primary reason for treating with FSM.
As a sense of humor, I suggested we could program frequencies for “constipation,” as that might give a “real kick in the pants.” (What is the opposite of constipation?)
I politely turned down their offer. They were very disappointed.
Beginning with the Periodic Table of Elements, which lists every known element on our planet, we find that all atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. When I attended high school, and it is still being taught this way today, it is explained: “The electrons spin around the protons and neutrons in circles.” Like how wheel weights spin around in circles on automobile tires to keep those tires in balance. This is false information. Electron microscopes can clearly see that electrons actually vibrate back and forth in clearly defined orbits. I emphasize “back and forth” which creates specific signature oscillating frequencies.
Try this: Hold your hand with arm stretched outward. You cannot move your wrist in circles, but you can move your wrist back and forth. If you can vibrate your hand 20 times in one second, that is 20 cycles per second oscillating frequency.
Numerous atoms make up molecules. Thousands of molecules make up cells. Thousands of cells make up tissues. I believe it is the collective accumulation of all the vibrating electrons of all the atoms that are responsible for the final, extremely specific, oscillating vibrational harmonics of each individual organic tissue.
What is extremely important to understand: External factors, such as a high impact injury from a car accident, a severe sports injury, or even seemingly minor events such as PTSD which are emotional traumas that can occur to anyone from babies to combat war veterans. All these conditions will change the overall vibrational harmonic of tissues. That is why I always get the response, “I’ve never been quite the same since that event.” The damaged, abnormal electron vibrations will not automatically change back to normal. It has to be intentionally corrected using therapy designed specifically for this purpose. FSM is the only therapy I know of that can fix these damaged electron oscillating frequencies.
Acts of terror affects emotions dramatically, as do physical accidents such as auto and sports injuries, as do toxins when poisoning occurs. Even though the medicine of choice at the moment may have seemed to help, what every form of medicine lacks, is addressing the damaged vibrational harmonics of the affected tissues. Under MRI studies, the bone is still a bone, nerves are still nerves, muscles also seem the same and the brain seems the same. However, under electron microscope studies, it will be found the energies of the tissues are abnormal. This may also show up with Kirlian photography pictures.
Inspect crash dummy videos, shot at a mere 5 MPH. I’ve had several patients over the years where their impact velocities were as high as 70 MPH. This increased amount of force has an exponential relationship; like how each 0.1 increase on the Richter Magnitude Scale of an earthquake is actually 10 times stronger. There is a branch of science called Auto Accident Crash Data Retrieval Technicians who can reconstruct the accident and calculate forces of energy absorbed by the auto accident victims.
In a whiplash accident the brain is tossed inside the skull, the brain banging against the inside of the skull. The severity depends on the force of impact. If the brain strikes the inside of the skull often with repeated forces as in Football, a potential condition called Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) can develop. Dr. Bennet Omalu, M.D., was the first to discover this connection in 2002 with professional football players. Dr. Julian E. Bailes, M.D., Dr. Daniel G. Amen, M.D., and Dr. Jesse Mez, M.D. have also conducted research connecting professional football to CTE injuries. Granted, auto accidents are not this dramatic, it does point out the seriousness of potential brain damage in a severe whiplash injury at high impact velocities.
The average weight of the human head is 13 pounds. Connecting the brain to the spinal cord is the brain stem / medulla. Nine of the twelve cranial nerves originate from the brain stem and can be affected. The brain stem is also the nerve track where brain signals must pass through before entering the spinal cord.
What I do see with every single auto accident victim I have treated are brain stem / medulla injuries. Each victim of any type of trauma will respond differently depending on position of head at time of impact, velocity of impact, etc. Long term results are sure to linger on, quite possibly for life. I treat this all the time in my practice and my patients are very grateful that FSM technology can address these issues, all without a scalpel or drugs. FSM is painless and extremely effective.
I have observed the following long term complications in brain stem / medulla injuries which usually do not surface until about six to 18 months after the accident, long after their auto insurance PIP claim has been closed. The brain stem becomes “concussed” which is different from a “concussion,” however both can be treated with FSM. Any or all of this symptoms could become your future symptoms.
When the spinal cord in the neck gets traumatized, it likely will produce even more problems later in life. I treat of lot of fibromyalgia, which is a disease of corresponding pains on each side of the body. Like on both sides of the same part of each shoulder etc. In my clinical experience, every single patient I’ve had with complaints of this nature, when I dig deeply, always has a history of a severe injury where the head got tossed violently. It is my belief the natural harmonics in the cervical spinal cord had been injured, and sure as the sun comes up in the morning, 10 to 20 years later those patients always seem to come up with fibromyalgia.
Go to: “frequencyspecific.com”
Click on “FSM Practitioners”
Enter your zip code and how far you are willing to travel.
I recommend the following homework before making an appointment:
As an example: One patient had just gone through nasal surgery. He snored loudly which his wife did not like. I had one graphite gloved hand over his left nasal cavity and my other gloved hand over his right nasal cavity. I could feel the aura on the left side went very deep, compared to this right side. I could also feel each side needed different frequencies to heal. I asked that patient if his surgeon had dug his scalpel deeper on the left side. He answered back: “Yes, that is right. I remember my surgeon telling me something about that.”
Current FSM training does teach the doctor to place their bare hands under the wet towels to check for positive reactions of warmth and softness. Current training no longer includes using graphite gloves.
Note: I may use wet towels in some circumstances. The first is bedside manners. The second would be if my hands simply cannot reach from the patient’s head to their feet, if needed. I am not a tall man with long arms.
This is why I will never retire. It is like living inside a beautiful picture and experiencing the auras, as opposed to just administering a therapy as an auto mechanic would when servicing an engine. I am excited to see the healing taking place first hand.
The roots of Frequency Specific Microcurrent (FSM) date back to the early 1900’s from Dr. Albert Abrams, who was the first physician to use calibrated instruments capable of detecting the radiations of living tissue. Dr. Abrams concluded that: all matter radiates electromagnetic energy; the characteristics of the radiations from any type of matter depend upon the molecular constituents of the material examined; and the radiations emitted by the different organs of living tissues can be detected, selectively differentiated, and the amplitudes measured. Dr. Abrams became convinced that the frequencies involved were radio waves and that electronic equipment could be developed to neutralize and eliminate disease radiations.
Modern FSM utilizes hundreds of frequencies within the range of .01 to 999 Hz, with varying intensities of 20 to 600 micro amps. This low amperage is below our ability to feel the frequencies, but is just the right amount of amperage to cause the electrons of atoms to change harmonic frequencies and also cause a 500% increase in ATP production.
Modern FSM training has been available to physicians of Chiropractic, Naturopathic, and Allopathic since late 1997. I have been specializing in FSM since the beginning in 1997, and am one of the few doctors who has progressed to become a “Certified Frequency Specific Microcurrent Practitioner.” FSM is highly specialized and can be used alone, or with additional therapies as determined on a case-per-case basis. There are no other therapies in medicine that are comparable to FSM.
Since FSM does its work on extremely deep levels, with amperage equivalent only to the energy produced by vibrating electrons, the exact mechanism of how FSM works is not known; however, well over 150,000 patient cases have been studied. The following is my theory of how FSM works.
Remember your high school chemistry class. Think about the explanation of the atom. At the center of the atom are the protons and neutrons. This is called the nucleus. The old theory, in the 1960s, was the electrons were spinning in orbits around the nucleus, similar to how automobile wheel weights are spinning around in circles while keeping automobile tires in balance. Modern research has shown that the electrons actually vibrate back and forth in orbits around the nucleus, forming an electron cloud; instead of spinning in continuous, mono-directional circles. This new understanding is the basis of my FSM theory.
Each tissue in the body has individualized frequencies. The individualized and specific vibrational characteristics of each atom, of each tissue type, changes for varying conditions, such as: trauma, inflammation, stress, environmental influences, etc. To put the theory of vibrations in a better overall perspective: different vibrations / frequencies of sound, light, radio waves, etc., are responsible for notes of music, colors of light, and radio stations. Vibrations are specific and unique for all matter, inorganic and organic. Therefore, if human tissues are subjected to some type of external influences such as a MVC (motor vehicle collision / trauma), the vibrations of the electrons change and will therefore also alter the size of the electron orbits around the nucleus of each atom. The affected human tissues are still the same tissues, but their characteristics have been altered. This is why, after a MVC that has not been treated on the electron level to bring those tissued back to their original frequencies; many patients will complain they have never been quite the same since the time before their accident, but no-one will believe them.
FSM is “frequency specific” because we match the frequencies of the tissue disruptions with the frequencies we choose for our therapy. The new (abnormal) vibrational characteristics that occur from damage to a tissue are countered with specific microcurrent frequencies that match the exact abnormal frequencies that are present in the damaged tissue. The desired effect is to neutralize those frequencies that are incorrect for the damaged / affected tissues. When human tissues have been damaged, the body will try to compensate by making changes; like how scar tissue replaces normal tissues. These many changes create what we call, layers of harmonic disturbances. FSM works to remove / naturalize each abnormal layer, layer-by-layer; like removing several layers of wallpaper in a very old house, layer-by-layer. The idea is to remove all abnormal electron layers until only the original layer is remaining so the once damaged tissue can return to its original state of health.
As the wrong electron frequencies are neutralized and the electrons return to their normal orbital vibrations, the physiological condition of the tissues will begin to normalize. The speed at which these changes occur varies with each individual. Some patients may experience a notable change immediately after treatment, or in some cases the greatest changes will not be noticed for up to 24 hours. Changes occur in steps of progression. It is unreasonable to expect a tissue that was harshly affected by trauma or other outside / environmental influences, to change drastically in one day. Most chronic conditions of long standing will usually demonstrate significant changes after the first six treatments. However this is very individualized and can vary dramatically for any patient and / or condition. Some conditions may respond with rapid changes, while other conditions may take longer for notable changes to occur.
To better explain, if the electrons have been at the “wrong” frequencies for an extended period of time, after treatment the electrons may try to revert back to those wrong frequencies (rebound), perhaps within four to seven days. Thus the net result is usually an average of six treatments for the notable changes to become long lasting. Microcurrent treatment should be repeated at appropriate intervals until the cause and effect principle becomes permanent.
Our bodies produce an electrical charge that can be scientifically measured. The amount of current or electrical charge used in FSM is approximately the same level as what the cells in our body normally produce. This amount of electrical current is far below are ability to perceive any stimulus via our “sensory nerves.” Our sensory nerves are those nerves that allow us to feel anything that touches our skin, allows us to sense heat, etc. If our sensory nerves were able to react at those extremely low levels of electrical charge, we would be feeling nerve sensations all the time, instead of at the appropriate times. This difference accounts for the reason why microcurrent is “sub sensory.” The electrical charge produced by microcurrent is below the level at which our sensory nerves can perceive.
A benefit of causing healthy electrical changes at the atomic, thus cellular level, is an increase in cellular activity. This enhanced cellular activity causes a 500% increase in ATP production from the cells treated with FSM. ATP is the “fuel” your body manufactures for use and / or storage of energy. In addition to the dramatic increase in ATP production, enhanced cellular activity also causes an excitement by your cells to dump old stored toxins into your bloodstream; toxins that may have been accumulating over years. As the released toxins enter your bloodstream, they will eventually reach and be processed by your liver in a detoxification pathway, then dumped out of your body. Your liver has enzymes that can normally process all toxins, however such a dramatic increase in toxins all at once is like rush hour traffic on the freeway. As the toxins become backed up, some side effects can be experienced. These may include: nausea, fatigue, drowsiness, a temporary increase in pain, and a flu-like feeling. These side effects, if experienced, may occur during treatment, or may not be noticed until perhaps 90 minutes after treatment, and could last from 4 to 24 hours. Taking antioxidants and / or liver support supplementation immediately prior to treatment will help neutralize / process those toxins faster. Drinking two quarts of water in the two hours immediately following treatment will greatly help facilitate / accelerate your liver detoxification pathways. (As long as you do not get stuck in rush hour traffic after drinking those two quarts of water.)
As an example of how effective FSM is in causing cells to release deeply stored toxins, deep tissue massage, which also allows cells to release toxins, is used here for comparison: 20 minutes of FSM releases as many toxins as four hours of deep tissue massage.
Another positive benefit of FSM is a re-establishment of the normal communication between the brain and the affected tissue. When a tissue has been injured or otherwise negatively affected, over a period of time the active role the brain plays in either trying to heal the tissue, or acknowledging a continual cycle of pain, may be reduced, or totally eliminated. This is a similar brain-to-injured tissue mechanism that would be experienced in the following two examples. In the event of endless pain: In a person who has experienced a traumatic emotional event, a state of amnesia may set in so the person may no longer remember that event. This is a form of physiological / psychological protection the body uses to protect the person from any further emotional trauma. On a purely physiological example of how the brain will send signals to heal an injured tissue, but fall short of total healing: When a race horse pulls a tendon, that tendon will only heal to 80% of normal. Veterinary science will use a process called “pin firing” where pins are inserted into the 80% healed tendons to cause an aggravation. This aggravation sends signals to the horse’s brain, causing the tendon to heal the remaining 20%, allowing the horse to re-enter racing. This technique to heal tendons in racehorses has been used for many years. With FSM, the same type of re-establishment of brain-to-damaged tissue ensues. The brain may become “re-awakened” to the pain in that tissue, and will once again participate in sending signals to the rest of the body to heal those old injuries. What the patient may experience in these cases is a mild increase in pain for a few days, to a few weeks. This is a positive sign that the brain is taking a more active role in the recovery process.
I decided in 1997 to specialize in FSM due to its remarkable speed of healing injured tissues in sports, worker’s, and auto accidents. When working with these patients, I have witnessed a three-fold increase in healing times, with a more complete / long-term healing, when compared to the other usual modalities used in medicine to treat similar injuries.
I’ve had patients receiving chelation and other therapies for heavy metal toxicity report: “of all available therapies for heavy metal toxicity, a single session of FSM releases more heavy metal toxins than any other treatments”. The net result being FSM was very cost effective.
I’ve had patients who suffered from chronic parasitic infections, who had received all possible conventional treatments for their infections with concurrent lab tests revealing their infections were “no longer present”, complain it “felt like their infections were still present, somewhere deep.” FSM was the therapy that finally allowed those individuals to feel free at last of their infestations. This could be due to deeply buried and latent parasites hidden deep within their tissues, or that the negative vibrational harmonics caused by those parasites were never neutralized, even though the actual parasites had already been eliminated. One of the many great benefits of FSM is its ability to neutralize negative vibrational energies. In a very clear example of how energies can remain intact, long after something has already physically been removed, is the following example. This was a scientifically based demonstration viewed on a PBS educational series a few years ago. Special research photography had shown a very clear, blue in color energy field, outlining the exact anatomical size and location of a man’s finger that had been completely severed in an industrial accident many years earlier. Yet this man could still “feel” his finger and the exact outline of his finger could easily be seen, even though his finger was totally missing.
The following is designed to answer some of the question you might have about FSM.
What is Microcurrent? Microcurrent is a physical therapy modality that has been in use in modern medical since late 1997. Its origins date back to 1910. Microcurrent is measured in “microamps.” One microamp is equivalent to one millionth of an amp. (1 / 100,000,000 amp). By comparison, a TENS unit and most other electro-therapies are measured in “milliamps.” One milliamp is 1000 times more powerful than one microamp. Using too much power or amperage, “overpowers” cellular energies. This could be likened unto watering a beautiful but delicate flower inside your home. You only use a little water each time to water that flower. Overpowering your watering technique would be like dumping a five gallon bucket of water all at once onto your little flower. Instead of watering your flower, you have just drowned it. Your own cells make current in microamps.
How does it work? Your body uses microcurrent energy to increase its own energy production. Microcurrent increases the production of ATP, the fuel your body manufacturers, by up to 500%. It also increases protein synthesis and waste product removal.
Why can’t I feel it? The current is so low it doesn’t stimulate sensory nerves.
Why does the doctor use the black graphite gloves? The graphite gloves conduct the current from the machine to your body. The gloves allow the doctor to feel your muscles and put the current exactly where it is needed. It is believed the shape of the gloves makes them a more effective way of delivering the current to the muscles. The human hand has a remarkable ability to assist in the healing of biological tissues.
What are the pads for? The pads are a more subtle way of delivering the current to your body. The pads deliver frequencies to your whole system, not just the muscles. The frequencies used with the pads are thought to work like electronic homeopathy.
Why does the doctor change frequencies on the machine? It has been observed that specific frequencies seem to target specific conditions in specific tissues. In many cases the tissues will suddenly soften and become less painful when the correct combination of frequencies are chosen. This softening and the pain relief that comes with it seems to be long lasting and in some cases permanent.
How do the frequencies work? The frequencies appear to work on the principle of biologic resonance. A singer can shatter a glass when the note resonates with the crystal structure of the glass. Microcurrent frequencies seem to be able to resonate with biologic tissue and change the structure of the tissue when the frequency is correct. Once the tissue is changed and stable it seems to be able to stay in the new configuration for a very long time, usually measured in years.
What are the benefits of FSM therapy? Microcurrent treatment is painless, increases speed of recovery, often promotes healing in conditions that have not responded to other treatments, and is cost effective. The effects are long lasting and the healing of tissue is more complete.
What are the side effects? Microcurrent changes muscle tissue, softens and dissolves scar tissue, and increases circulation with the effect of removing long stored waste products and increasing cellular metabolism, so quickly that there is often a detoxification reaction after treatment. Some people have a similar reaction after a massage but the reaction after Microcurrent is stronger because so much is accomplished in such a short period of time. The side effects can include nausea, fatigue, drowsiness, a temporary increase in pain, and a flu-like feeling. The side effects usually start during or about 90 minutes after treatment, and may last from 4 to 24 hours. There have been no lasting adverse reactions reported. FSM has a history of being very safe.
What can I do about the side effects? Your doctor may give you some supplements to help your liver detoxification pathways deal faster with the by-products from the tissues. You should also drink at least two quarts of water in the two hours following treatment. If you feel the side effects return, drink more water, take additional supplements and it should pass in about 20 minutes. (Just be sure to use the restroom before getting stuck in rush hour traffic!)
Do the benefits last? Every patient responds individually but the changes to the tissues seem to be long lasting. About 60 to 80% of the changes created in one treatment last until the next treatment, about four to seven days. Your muscles are used to responding the way they are and may return to the old configuration if not treated again, although some patients have had permanent changes in one treatment. In my many years of practicing FSM, I have several patients report their positive changes are still present, even several years after their last FSM treatment.
If you have any other question or concerns be sure to ask me. Otherwise relax, drink your water and enjoy the relief you can receive from Frequency Specific Microcurrent.
A Proposed Explanation of the Energetic Nature of Biological Systems
The explanation of the effects of specific frequencies on specific tissues and conditions must start with a quantum view of physical tissue instead of a Newtonian or mechanical view. Physical tissue is a collection of biochemicals which are formed, folded and aligned in particular configurations to create a biological / biochemical / bioelectric system. However, if you look deeper, down to the molecular level, then even deeper into the subatomic level, you will discover bits of energy that is vibrating at great speeds. Electromagnetic bonds hold this energy together in an energetic relationship. If you were magically able to make yourself small enough to view molecules at the subatomic level, you would likely discover that there is far greater space being occupied by energy, than by the matter of the actual atoms. This energy may “behave” as particles, or it may behave as waves. “In the quantum world classical particles such as electrons are at the same time waves, and waves can do things that particles cannot do.” (Oschman, 1996)
Now allow your imagination to go deeper. Question: “What could be present deep within the spaces inside those pieces of energy?” If there is an electromagnetic field deep within those bits of energy, could that electromagnetic field hold patterns that would be characteristic of specific events that had occurred which could have been either traumatically physical or emotional? If this were true, then this would explain many things. It would explain how the effects of physical injury remain in the tissue long after the tissue should have healed.
The study of cells in a conventional biological and organic chemistry approach, usually views cells as a membrane filled with little organs (called organelles), which process reactions through simple diffusion. Again, as we go deeper we find a more detailed explanation. “The cell is filled with a micro-trabecular lattice that forms the ground substance within the cell. All of the organelles are suspended and interconnected by the micro–trabeculae. Glycoproteins extend across the cell surface from the cell interior to the exterior. These proteins connect with the filamentous network within the cell. The filamentous network is a crystalline gel lined by water molecules and conveys and stores current, charge and vibrational information.” (Oschman 1997) Now if we were to introduce a concept that there is a “continuum” between the brain and the rest of the body through the perineurium. Then add the idea that the electromagnetic field within the bits of energy can store energetic vibrational or frequency patterns of past traumatic events. This could explain how emotional trauma and memory is “stored” in physical tissue and then affects physical function.
Dr. James Oschman, a Ph.D. biophysicist has published extensively on the scientific basis of energy medicine. He wrote an article in 1996 on the scientific basis of energy medicine. Here he describes Szent-Gyorgyi’s suggestion that the proteins in the body are semiconductors. While this idea was vigorously opposed, it was eventually shown to be entirely correct. Virtually all of the molecules forming the living matrix are semiconductors. Dr Oschman quoted Szent-Gyorgyi: “Molecules do not have to touch each other to interact. Energy can flow through the electromagnetic field…the electromagnetic field, along with water, forms the matrix of life. Water can form structures that transmit energy.” (Szent-Gyorgyi 1988)
The hydrogen ions aligned along the crystalline gel that forms the intracellular matrix form tetrahedral structures with space for four electrons. The semiconductor function includes electrons and spaces where electrons are absent in an outer shell. The spaces where electrons are missing are relatively positive in charge. The relative positive charges serve to pull the negatively charged electrons along and move current through the tissue quickly, almost instantly. The electromagnetic field created by the crystalline gel and the water molecules forms the matrix that can convey and sore charge, current and vibrational information.
Dr. Oschman goes on to say: “Every part of the body, including all of the molecules so thoroughly studied by modern science…form a continuously interconnected semiconductor electronic network. Each component of the organism, even the smallest part, is immersed in and generates a constant stream of vibratory information…Complete health corresponds to total interconnection. Accumulated physical and / or emotional trauma impairs the interconnections. When this happens, the body’s defense and repair systems become impaired and disease has a chance to take hold. Acupuncture and other energy therapies restore and balance the vibratory circuitry, with obvious and profound benefits.”
Lets begin with some basics. A wave length is a continuous wave of energy and goes side-to-side or up and down, much like if you were to take a pencil on a piece of paper and draw a wavy line going up and down, up and down in an EQUAL pattern. Radio waves broadcasted from a radio or TV station, or a Ham radio or CB radio, all use electronic waves. Some Ham Radio waves have wavelengths that can be as tall as 80 meters (about the height of four large or six shorter telephone poles). Other Ham Radio waves can move up and down in much smaller heights, like 70 centimeters (about 27 inches). While biological wavelengths in the human body are extremely small in comparison, the principle is the same.
Now lets hold on to any specific wavelength (or height of a wave) for an example. (IE lets use a wave height of about 70 cm, but vary the frequency of how often that wave goes up and down in a given distance.) “Hertz” is a measurement of frequency or electronic vibration of a wave length and is abbreviated “Hz.” Does the wavelength measured go up and down several times in a short space (which means a higher frequency), or less often (meaning a lower frequency)? We measure the frequency of how often the wave goes up and down by measuring the distance between the highest points of each up-stroke of that wavelength. AM radio waves involve a specific wavelength / wave height, FM radio involves a different wavelength, TV another, and so on. Within each wavelength area, AM, FM, etc, we can dial in a specific frequency to obtain a specific AM or FM radio station, TV station, etc. Thus the frequency becomes extremely “specific” to locate your favorite radio station, etc.
This is much the same with “Frequency Specific Microcurrent.” The actual wave height is extremely small on the subatomic level. We use a constant wavelength but we vary the frequency. Frequencies available with our current electronic Microcurrent units allow us to dial in frequencies as low as 0.01 Hz and as high as 999.0 Hz. Through literature from the early 1900’s and again in the 1930’s, and again in the 1970’s – 1990’s up to this day, clinical trials have been performed on literally several thousand patients that prove on a clinical level that certain specific frequencies can and do effect specific biological, emotional, and energetic levels in the human body.
I believe Homeopathy works much in the same manner, involving specific frequencies of a specific homeopathic remedy, which we try to match to a specific defect within the patient. We hope by introducing the correct homeopathic remedy, or frequency, that we can obtain the desired biological or emotional change within that patient. Microcurrent allows us to continually change the frequencies when needed to allow the practitioner to “follow” the patient’s needs at the moment while we try to remove “layers” of conditions we hope to affect. Medicine is not just one item, but is usually composed of several sub layers. Removing layers of a particular complaint is much like peeling an onion; one layer at a time, or one frequency at a time, but able to change frequencies as we progress in that treatment period. We can liken Frequency Specific Microcurrent on to a form of “electronic homeopathy.”
A “micro” current (microamp = uA) is a measurement of electricity that is so small that it is below the ability of our nerves to feel the current. It is at a magnitude of current that is very close to the current that our bodies produce. There is an electrical charge within each of our bodies. This is simple to understand when you consider that the electrons that vibrate around a nucleus of an atom are charged particles. Electrical current is measurable within the human body or any other biological system. With our current Frequency Specific Microcurrent units we are able to dial in microamp settings from as low as 10 microamps to as high as 600 microamps. This variation allows us to tailor each treatment to the energetic nature of the patient being treated, the amount of body tissue the current must pass through, the energetic nature of the condition we are attempting to correct, and the energetic nature of the tissue itself.
Microcurrent is an electrical treatment modality providing current in 10 to 600 millionths of an ampere that has the ability to relieve pain, increase the rate of wound healing, increase protein synthesis, stimulate the regeneration of injured tissue, stimulate lymphatic flow, relieve myofascial trigger points, and change scar tissue.
An ampere (amp) is the measure of electron movement or current flow past a fixed point over time. Microcurrent is current delivered at a rate of 1 microampere (uA) which equals 1/1000 of a milliamp, that is, one one-thousandth of one one-thousandth of an amp or 1 millionth of an ampere (1 / 100,000,000 amp). 1000 Microamps =1 Milliamp. The current flows at a physiologic rate. It is delivered on the same scale as the current your body produces on its own in each cell. Traditional electrotherapy units such as TENS, interferential, high volt, and sine deliver milliamps. This is why they can cause muscle contraction and Microcurrent cannot. Microcurrent is sub sensory and cannot be felt while it is being delivered because there is not enough current to stimulate the sensory receptors. Milliamp therapy overpowers muscle, thus is able to cause the muscles to strongly contract during those types of therapies.
Frequency Specific Microcurrent uses specific frequencies at a level of electrical current that closely match the current of the human body. Given this explanation, and the theory of electromagnetic fields within our cells, and backing this all up with the science of homeopathy which as been around since the early 1840’s, then back this up with all the past and current clinical trials, gives us some very solid evidence of the value and understanding of Frequency Specific Microcurrent.
Frequency Specific Microcurrent increases ATP production my 500%. In a study done by Ngok Cheng, M.D. entitled “The effects of Electric Current on ATP generation, Protein Syntheses and Membrane transport in Rat Skin.” ATP production increased five times (500%) with currents from 50uA to 1000uA. With currents exceeding 1000uA, ATP production leveled and with 5000uA, ATP production was reduced slightly. Microcurrent was also shown to increase protein synthesis and amino acid transport.
Microcurrent applied to injured tissue supports the natural current flow in the tissue, allowing cells in the traumatized area to regain their “capacitance.” Trauma affects the electrical potential of the damaged tissue. This injured area has a higher electrical “resistance” than the surrounding tissue. This decreases electrical conductance through the injured area and decreases cellular capacitance, leading to impairment of the healing process and inflammation. When Microcurrent is applied, resistance is reduced, allowing bioelectricity to flow through and reestablish normal function. This process helps to initiate and perpetuate the many biochemical reactions that occur in healing.
How can specific frequencies create immediate changes in specific tissues to neutralize specific conditions? To answer this question we have to look at the principles of biologic resonance. Think about a singer, Julie Andrews in Victor Victoria, singing a prolonged note towards a crystal champagne glass. The note resonates with the binding energy that holds the crystal together, causing the crystal to come apart and the glass to shatter. That is the essence of biologic resonance. It is more complicated than that in biologic tissue but the basic concept applies. Conditions that have affected the tissue over time form patterns that are held in the crystalline structure of the gel substance that forms the cell matrix and the interconnections between all of the cells and membranes in the body.
In his book Vibrational Medicine, Richard Gerber, M.D. describes the process in this way: “Resonance is a phenomenon which occurs throughout nature. At the level of the atom, we know that electrons whirl about the nucleus in certain energetically defined orbits. In order to move an electron from a lower to a higher orbit, a quantum of energy with very special frequency characteristics is required. An electron will only accept energy of the appropriate frequency to move from one energy level to another. If the electron falls from the higher to the lower orbit, it will radiate energy of that very same frequency. This required atomic frequency is referred to as the “resonant frequency.” The phenomenon of resonance is the principle behind the imaging systems of MRI and EMR scanning. Atoms and molecules have special resonant frequencies that will only be excited by energies of very precise vibratory characteristics. For instance, the singer who is able to shatter a wineglass by delivering a high amplitude note does so by singing in the precise resonant frequency of the glass.”
“Another definition of resonance has to do with the phenomenon of energy exchanged between tuned oscillators. If two perfectly tuned Stradivarius violins are placed at opposite ends of a small room and we pluck the E string of one violin, the sister violin will begin to vibrate and “sing” in harmony. The reason that this occurs is because the E strings of the violins are carefully tuned and responsive to a particular frequency. The E strings can accept energy in the E frequency because that is their resonant frequency.”
“The human mind / body / spirit complex is the holistic expression and sum total of a wide spectrum of interactive energy systems. These energetic factors include the bioenergetic currents of cellular semiconductors, and also the subtle magnetic currents of primary meridian flow.” (Gerber; 1988)
James Oschman, Ph.D. describes Herbert Frolich’s work in his 1996 article in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. Frolich worked in the Department of Physics at Liverpool. In the late 1960’s Frolich predicted, on the basis of quantum physics that the living matrix must produce coherent or laser-like oscillations. This prediction was confirmed in a number of laboratories. From the work of Frolich and others, we know that all parts of the living matrix set up vibration that move about within the organism, and that are radiated into the environment. These vibrations or oscillations occur at many different frequencies, including visible and near-visible light frequencies. These are not subtle phenomena; they are large or even gigantic in scale. Moreover their effects are not trivial because living matter is highly organized and exceedingly sensitive to the information conveyed by coherent signals. Each cell, tissue and organ has an ideal resonant frequency that coordinates its activities. By manipulating and balancing the vibratory circuits, complementary therapists are able to directly influence the body’s systemic defense and repair mechanisms. The molecular web is more than structure. It is a continuous vibratory network. As such, it presents possibilities of profound biological and clinical significance. (Oschman, 1996)
When the patient’s condition is stable and the body metabolism and mechanics will support the change in condition, the effects created by the frequencies are quite long lasting. When multiple treatments are done, each visit produces some results that are lasting and each subsequent treatment focuses on unresolved problems. In order to explain how such effects can be immediate and then become permanent we have to look at the principles of energy wells and stable states of biochemical structures.
Think of substances that can exist in more than one state such as water. When you apply energy to water that is in the form of ice at 0 degrees centigrade, it becomes liquid water. But the surrounding temperature has to be above 0 degrees for water to remain as liquid water. If you heat the water and turn it into vapor as steam it will remain steam as long as the temperature of the system stays above 100 degrees centigrade. The surrounding system has to be supportive of the change in energy state. In biological tissue we have the concept of energy wells from thermodynamics. In biochemistry we have the basic six-hydrocarbon-chain that was stable in a “chair” or in a “boat” configuration. The exact same atoms are configures in a different form; both forms are stable depending on the energetic milieu in which they exist. When you apply energy to the system, the configuration changes and the form becomes stable in its new configuration as long as the system is supportive of the new state.
It is much the same in our observed cases. The changes in tissue are lasting to various degrees. We have found that if the patient is basically healthy with a simple chronic myofascial pain problem, regardless of chronicity the improvement will persist without any nutritional intervention after minimal treatment. If the patient has nutritional deficiencies of functional or emotion stresses on the system, the improvement will last between one and fourteen days. In order to make the improvement lasting, more than Microcurrent must be performed. Conditions such as oxidative stress, dysbiosis, leaky gut, mineral deficiencies, biochemical instability, de-conditioned muscles and emotional and constitutional stress must be addressed. The application of Microcurrent creates a rapid recovery; the application of the principles of functional medicine, nutrition support and exercise allow the recovery to persist.
The model for how and why frequencies relate to specific tissues and conditions was well stated by George Vithoulkas.
Electromagnetic fields are characterized by the phenomenon of vibration. As electrons race around atomic nuclei, they first move in one direction then another, as viewed by an external observer. This oscillation back and forth occurs at a specific frequency, which is determined by the type of sub-atomic particle and its level of energy. For our purposes however the significant point is that everything exists in a state of vibration, and every electromagnetic field is characterized by vibration, and every electromagnetic field is characterized by vibrational rates (or frequencies), which can be measured. The human organism is no exception. To grossly over simplify a highly complex situation one can visualize an individual human being as existing at a particular vibrational frequency which may change dynamically every second depending on the mental state of the person, internal or external stresses, illness, etc. The electromagnetic field is very likely the “vital force” that Hahnemann (the father of homeopathy) referred to.
Once a morbidic stimulus has affected the electromagnetic field of a person, things may progress in two ways. If the person’s constitutional state is quite strong and the harmful stimulus weak, the electromagnetic field changes vibration rate only slightly and only for a short periods of time. The individual is not aware that anything has happened at all.
But if the stimulus is powerful enough to overwhelm the vital force, the electromagnetic field undergoes a greater change in vibrational rate and effects are eventually felt by the individual. The symptoms of a disease are nothing but reactions trying to rid the organism of earlier disturbances on a dynamic electromagnetic level. (George Vithoulkas 1979)
Located inside the Brain Stem
All impact injuries, including auto collisions, usually causes the head to be tossed violently. This creates an injury state to the Brain Stem which affects the Medulla. The Medulla coordinates all traffic to and from the brain, all autonomic functions, and is the source of nine of the twelve cranial nerves. The Medulla is still working, but no longer “optimally.” To the untrained physician, this injury remains unacknowledged. These symptoms usually go unnoticed, until months after therapy has concluded and the insurance claim has been closed. Long term complaints are usually: “I’ve never been quite the same since that accident.” etc.
Medulla concussive injures can also be caused from the reverse. Overwhelming input from the vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve) which originates from the Medulla, can concussive the Medulla. Motor Vehicle Collisions (MVC) usually cause overwhelming emotional vagus input, which feeds back and then concusses the Medulla. The Vagus nerve is exceedingly important. It controls the parasympathetic nervous system which controls the gastrointestinal tract. It controls the heart, pulmonary system, all visceral organs, and motor coordination. It controls 80 – 90% of the sensory system, which feeds into the central nervous system. The Vagus nerve is the longest nerve in the autonomic nervous system. When a MVC affects the medulla which then affects the Vegas nerve, it can produce many long term negative problems.
Concussive injuries can also affect the Pituitary Gland. The Pituitary Gland regulates hormone production. The result can lead to dis-regulation of normal hormone production.
Noticeable symptoms of a Medulla / Brain Stem injury usually surface about six to 18 months after the accident. Common symptoms may include:
References: FSM Annual Continuation Seminars which has been actively taught to physicians from January 1997 to present.
Cervical Trauma Induced Fibromyalgia is one of the leading causes of Fibromyalgia. The damage that occurred was in the cervical portion of the spinal cord, which hindered normal nerve enervation through that part of the spinal cord, leading to painful fibromyalgia points below the cervical spinal cord. These symptoms may begin to appear six to 18 months post-accident. In my clinical experience, can be as late as ten to twenty years after the accident. To date, every fibromyalgia patient I have treated all have a history somewhere in there past of a significant MVC, sometimes many years earlier. Cervical trauma is extremely common in MVC injuries. This is commonly referred to as a “whiplash” injury.
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (2005), 9 169-176.
http://www.bodyworkmovementtherapies.com/article/S1360-8592 (05)00008-2/full text
Title of Study: “Cytokine changes with microcurrent treatment of fibromyalgia associated with cervical spine trauma.”
Understanding principles of electrical energy patterns as it relates to human biological tissue, can be confusing. “Kirlian Photography” is a way to actually see energy fields in humans.
See “Kirlian Photography” on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, for a basic written understanding with history.
Watch “Kirlian Photography Aura” videos on YouTube.
Elastin, Collagen and Vascularity: Rabbit research. Benefits of microcurrent amperage. Microcurrent frequency applied: 3/10ths of one hertz. Treatment duration: One hour per day, five days a week, four weeks.
Increases in elastin, collagen and vascularity enhances healing at deeper (subatomic) layers of injured tissues. Healing is longer lasting.
Elastin reduces the chance of further injury. The injured tissues become more pliable. Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. Elastin is also an important load-bearing tissue where mechanical energy is required to be stored.
Collagen fibers are increased and realigned, making collagen stronger and more resistant to further injury. Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in the body. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen consists of amino acids wound together to form triple-helices of elongated fibrils which is strongest when the fibers are in alignment. It is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin.
Increases in vascularity increase blood flow, increase oxygen permeability and increase vital nutrients necessary for optimal health, tissue maintenance and repair.
LOX and COX Mediated Inflammation: FSM blinded animal research, all animals responded.
Reductions in inflammation reduces pain, speeds recovery and causes healing on deeper levels.
LOX and COX are inflammatory pathways which are primarily responsible for many diseases in human beings. Chronic inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of cancer, arthritis, autoimmune, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can inhibit these pathways through non-selective mechanisms, but also produce gastric mucosal damages. FSM reduces these inflammatory pathways naturally, faster, and without negative side effects.
Pain Response Cytokines: Research on humans, blood sample data from NIH.
Absent FSM therapy, reductions of these magnitudes usually takes months. Reductions in inflammation reduces pain, speeds recovery and causes healing on deeper levels.
Cytokines are responsible for the initiation of pain from injuries and causes inflammation to develop. Cytokines are also responsible for the long term persistence pain and inflammation. Over-production or inappropriate production of certain cytokines can result in disease.
Pain Response Scores: Research on humans.
Reductions in pain scores from FSM therapy are accomplished without the need for pain relief drugs.
Hormones: Research on humans, blood sample data from NIH.
This is not a stress response. Cortisol follows endorphins.
Endorphins act on the opiate receptors in our brains. They reduce pain and boost pleasure resulting in a feelings of well-being.
References: FSM Annual Continuation Seminars which has been actively taught to physicians from January 1997 to present.
I am currently working on a research project which will include FSM as one of the primary treatment modalities, along with my specialized form of clinical nutrition, in a critical area of health that has the potential to save numerous lives. It is an extensive project and I will not post results for a few more years.
Peer reviewed medical studies have been conducted and are available for review at:
BABAV is the part of the new ABC coding system to more accurately bill FSM therapy.
Why ABC codes? Conventional medicine has over 10,000 service codes to bill insurers while 2 million health other health professionals (70%), have only 200 codes. ABC codes fill these coding gaps.
97032 is the old, generic, outdated code that was used by FSM practitioners until the new ABC codes were developed. BABAU is for FSM practitioners who received core FSM training. BABAV is for FSM practitioners who have received core plus specialized advanced training.