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Carbs

Carbohydrates, Fats, Cholesterol, Proteins, Diabetes, Hypoglycemia and Weight Loss

Index:
Metabolism Medical Considerations
Carbohydrates
Fats
Cholesterol
Proteins
Disclaimer
Metabolism
Medical Considerations

Digestive Enzymes: Must have a very high quality, bioavailable, preferably broad spectrum formula, for rapid and complete digestion of foods, to prevent developing possible food allergies. Raw food has intact enzymes that assist in the digestion of that food group. Cooking destroys enzymes. Our bodies also have enzymes that assist in digesting foods, however enzyme function diminishes with age. Failure to completely digest foods leads to incomplete assimilation of nutrients. The result is the development of a number of chronic medical conditions, food allergies included. Plant based digestive enzymes work at any pH; meaning once it is in your stomach, it starts working right away. Animal based digestive enzymes do not begin to work until after your stomach pH drops very low; thus any person with hypochlorhydria (a lack of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juices), may never benefit from animal based digestive enzymes. Enzymes taken with meals will be used up in the stomach while they help digest that meal. Enzymes taken on an empty stomach will go into the blood stream intact. Blood conditions such as stacking of red blood cells (RBCs) like a stack of coins (RBC Rouleau), or red blood cells clumping together (RBC Aggregation), or accumulations of Uric Acid Crystals in the blood, can be greatly helped with a combination of Plant Digestive Enzymes and Antioxidants, taken on an empty stomach. (See our section on pain.)
Health NOTE: Individuals with extreme cases of Gastritis, Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers should begin their Enzyme Supplementation with very little (or no) Protease. Then slowly introduce Protease in approximately 4-6 weeks. This is due to the situation that Protease may temporarily have a burning sensation on individuals with these situations.
Enzymes Supportive Information

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Carbohydrates
metabolism, enzymes, weight loss, diabetes, food combining

Carbohydrates are primarily an energy source as they convert to glucose, a cellular fuel. When not utilized for energy, can be stored in limited quantities as glycogen, a storage form of sugar, in amounts up to 2000 calories. Glucose is the brain’s preferred fuel.

Carbohydrates cause release of insulin. If eaten in excess, are converted to fat, a storage form of energy, which can be stored in subcutaneous tissues, or can surround organs such as the liver or heart. Carbohydrates are one of the raw materials the liver needs to manufacture Triglycerides, monounsaturated fats, and cholesterol.

Complex carbohydrates (starches) include whole grains and starchy vegetables (dried beans, peas, squash, yams, etc.) Complex carbohydrates take longer to convert to glucose. They retain essential cofactors and micronutrients that are required for the carbohydrates to be fully utilized. Use of complex carbohydrates results in fewer insulin surges and less nutrient depletion.

Simple carbohydrates are sugars (honey, syrups, candy, cookies, etc.) Fruits (especially juices) have metabolic effects similar to simple carbohydrates, even though not refined. Simple carbohydrates (sugars) cause greater insulin surges than complex carbohydrates.

All carbohydrates are ultimately converted into glucose. The use of the digestive enzyme Amylase will assist in better breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates.

If attempting to loose weight, it is most effective to limit intake of complex carbohydrates during the weight loss process. Other than fruits and fruit juices, it is advisable to totally stop all intake of simple carbohydrates.

If you have diabetes, or diabetes runs in your family, then it is also very wise to only use complex carbohydrates, again totally avoiding the simple carbohydrates. Be somewhat cautious with fruits and fruit juices.

Fruits are best consumed one half hour before any other foods. Fruits will quickly enter into the small intestine for processing. Eating fruits in the midst of a large meal will keep the fruits in the stomach a long time, and allow the fruits to begin to ferment.

The most effective method to loose weight is to keep complex carbohydrates to a minimum. Stop all simple carbohydrates. Do not eat any food after your evening meal. When you get those evening munchies craving, instead of sitting down in front of the TV set and eating lots of simple carbs (ice cream, potato chips, soda pop, etc), go for a walk with your spouse.

Then be sure to exercise every morning to get your metabolism in high gear so you burn off your calories faster. Remember, the body has a built in starvation protector. You must turn your metabolism on, and place in high gear every morning by exercising, then consuming a sensible breakfast which could be the protein drink. If you go out for lunch during your work lunch break, avoid mixing proteins with carbs, and especially avoid fast food establishments.

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Fats
metabolism, enzymes, weight loss

Fats are broken down into fatty acids, which are used to insulate and protect the body from shock and provide a source of stored reserve energy. Fats are essential for the health of our immune system and nervous system, hormone synthesis, skin integrity, and anti-inflammatory processes (Prostaglandins). Fats are used to protect the integrity of every cell membrane. Fats are the preferred fuel of our cells, except the brain.

BAD FATS include: Solvent extracted oils. These are essentially any polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oil found on supermarket shelves. These oils are damaged by processing through extraction by solvents (not mechanically pressed) and exposure to heat in excess of 450 degrees F. These trans-fatty acids are chemically altered fat molecules that cause cellular damage when ingested.

Sticky fat molecules use should be limited, particularly in warmer climates or in those with sedentary lifestyles. They increase the likelihood of clot formation and vascular disease. They inhibit important enzymes like delta 6-disaturase. Sources are animal fats, diary, coconut and palm oils.

GOOD FATS include: 1) Omega 3 (ALA) series oils from flax seed, hemp, salmon, herring, mackerel, sardines, tuna, and eel. 2) Omega 6 (LA) series oils from safflower, evening primrose, sunflower, borage, hemp and sesame oils. 3) Mono-unsaturated oils like olive oil and canola oil. 4) Butter and Ghee, while saturated, are a source of beneficial butyric acid, just use in moderation.

A ratio of 2 or 3:1 of Omega 6 to Omega 3 fatty acids is preferred. This ratio occurs naturally in hemp oil. Quality Omega 6 and 3 fatty acids are labile and easily oxidized in the presence of oxygen, light, and heat. They must be stored in the refrigerator. A deficiency of these good fats causes dry skin, brittle nails, and dandruff.

Lipase is the digestive enzyme that will help to break down and absorb fat molecules.

Some mistaking think all you have to do is reduce the fat in your diet to slim down. Part of this is true but lets look deeper. Fat does have over twice the calories per gram then either protein or carbohydrate. Fat has 9 calories per gram, while proteins and carbs have 4 calories per gram. However most of the food consumption in the modern lifestyle diet is from carbohydrates, with the consumption of simple carbohydrates making up a large percentage. Just look at the trends of the average American; the majority are overweight and adult onset diabetes is becoming more prevalent.

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Cholesterol
metabolism

Cholesterol is considered both a “Good” and a “Bad” fat. Cholesterol is a hard, waxy lipid substance made from fifteen 2 carbon-acetate molecules, involving enzyme catalysts to eventually make the 27-acetate cholesterol molecule.

20% of our body’s total cholesterol is from exogenous (dietary) sources. Our cells, especially the cells of the liver, adrenal glands, intestines, and sex organs, synthesize 80% of our body’s total cholesterol.

The ability of human cells to synthesize cholesterol is a mechanism designed for survival of the species during famine. Cholesterol has an individual set point, so its deprivation results in the body stepping up its syntheses of endogenous cholesterol.

Cholesterol functions include: 1) Protection of cell membrane integrity. 2) Needed for steroid hormone synthesis of Corticosteroids, Estrogens, Progesterone, and Testosterone. 3) Aids fat digestion through bile synthesis. 4) Protection of skin. 5) Anti-oxidant properties (weak).

The presence of cholesterol in atherosclerotic plague is evidence of the body’s efforts to repair primary free radical oxidative damage to the arterial intima. Blaming cholesterol for causing atherosclerosis is like blaming firemen for starting fires based on their mere presence at fires.

Factors that favor endogenous cholesterol production include: 1) Particularly Intake of refined sugars. 2) Intake of alcohol. 3) Excess intake of saturated fat and non-essential fatty acids. 4) Excessive caloric intake.

Dietary cholesterol is only found in animal sources, namely: eggs, meat, fish, seafood, and dairy. The body cannot break down these cholesterols; their only route of elimination is through the digestive tract. Fiber prevents reabsorption and recycling of cholesterol from the gut. Since cholesterol production involves energy use, it may be an advantage to eat meat.

Cholesterol excess may reflect excessive oxidative stress and nutrient deficiencies. Nutrient deficiencies could include: 1) Vitamin C. 2) Vitamin B3 (niacin). 3) Copper. 4) Chromium. 5) Zinc. 6) Calcium. 7) Essential Fatty Acids (EFA). Eat as many servings of nutrient-rich vegetables to provide the above nutrients that are relatively lacking in animal based food.

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Proteins
metabolism, enzymes, weight loss


Proteins are broken down into amino acids by digestion. They provide the “building blocks” for structure and repair of the body. They transport fats in the body via lipoproteins. Proteins regulate mood via their role in neurotransmitter formation. They are used as an energy source during starvation (or dieting) through gluconeogenesis.

Protein sources include: fish, seeds, nuts, legumes (notably soy), tofu, eggs, poultry, seafood, wild and exotic meats, beef and lamb.

The digestive enzyme Protease will assist in the breakdown and absorption of proteins.

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Enzymes Supportive Information

Enzymes are responsible for every activity of life. Each and every chemical reaction that takes place within the human body requires enzymes. Our digestive processes are dependent on adequate levels and functioning of digestive enzymes. Raw food has intact enzymes that assist in digestion. Nature intended us to obtain these enzymes from our food sources. Most individuals though, ingest high amounts of cooked food devoid of such enzymes. As our own body’s enzyme function likely diminishes with age, failure of proper digestion can result. This may evolve into a lack of adequate nutrition and the development of a number of chronic medical conditions. A quality line of enzyme products should be utilized on a daily, meal-to-meal basis, for anyone who has indigestion, or any other digestive complaints.

All enzymes need to be plant based. This is very important as plant based enzymes work under nearly all pH environments. Animal based enzymes will only work "after" your stomach lowers its pH to around 3.0. This certainly will not benefit those individuals who already have digestive problems related to improper stomach pH values.

There are two classes of enzymes recognized:

1. Metabolic enzymes - These are responsible for repair, formation and function of each cell within each and every tissue of the body. Over the course of time, these enzymes "wear out" and require replenishment by the body.

2. Digestive enzymes – The main enzymes are the proteases, amylases and lipases, which are involved in the breakdown of ingested proteins, carbohydrates and lipids (fats) respectively. However there are also other enzymes that should be included in a proper enzyme formula. Proper breakdown of these ingested foods is necessary to allow proper absorption of the nutrients to occur.

The current use of metabolic enzymes is limited to specific medical situations such as clot dissolution through intravenous use. Digestive enzymes, though, have been used and are available in supplemental form to assist in numerous digestive disorders.

There is extensive evidence that supports the use of digestive enzymes for a wide range of Gastrointestinal illness including malabsorption, pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease and lactose intolerance. There are at least two studies that have shown benefit in food allergies with the use of enzymes. Conventional physicians frequently recommend enzymes for all of these aforementioned situations. Heartburn and indigestion also frequently may respond to enzyme nutritional support.

Additional uses:

European literature recognizes additional uses for plant based proteolytic enzymes. These compounds have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, fibrinolytic (blood thinning) and anti-tumor properties in a number of animal experiments. A study in the Annals of Rheumatic Diseases showed benefit in individuals with arthritis. 556 people with various forms of arthritis were studied. 283 had good to excellent improvement and 219 showed mild to moderate improvement. The specific enzyme Bromelain, found within "Digestive Support" has been used successfully in Europe as an anti-inflammatory in diverse conditions such as allergic rhinitis and minor trauma including sprains and strains. Quality enzyme formulas thus have a broad range of applicability from improvement in digestion and gastrointestinal disorders, to enhancement of blood flow in individuals with circulatory disorders, to lessening of allergic and arthritis symptoms.

Side Effects:

Individuals with extreme cases of Gastritis, Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers should begin their Enzyme Supplementation with very little (or no) Protease. Then slowly introduce Protease in approximately 4-6 weeks. This is due to the situation that Protease may temporarily have a burning sensation on individuals with these situations.

Drug Interactions:

There is a theoretic concern for the use of Coumadin and protease digestive enzymes, due to the fibrinolytic properties of protease. The concern is: Coumadin is a blood thinner and fibrinolytic properties means to cause blood clotting. The question is whether taking protease would counter the effects of Coumadin. Blood clotting is a normal protective mechanism used by the body to stop people from bleeding when they get a cut. Without the ability of the blood to clot, a person could bleed to death from a small cut. No human studies have addressed this concern of Coumadin verses Protease enzymes.

References:

1. Oelgoetz AW, Oelgoetz PA, Wittenkind J. The treatment of food allergy and indigestion of pancreatic origin with pancreatic enzymes. Am J Dig Dis Nutr 1935;2:422–26.
2. McCann M. Pancreatic enzyme supplement for treatment of multiple food allergies. Ann Allerg 1993;71:269 [abstr #17].
3. Avakian S. Further studies on the absorption of chymotrypsin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1964;5:712–15.
4. Izaka K, Yamada M, Kawano T, Suyama T. Gastrointestinal absorption and anti-inflammatory effect of bromelain. Jpn J Pharmacol 1972;22:519–34.
5. Deitrick RE. Oral proteolytic enzymes in the treatment of athletic injuries: A double-blind study. Pennsylvania Med J Oct 1965: 35–37.
6. Seligman B. Bromelain: an anti-inflammatory agent. Angiology 1962;13:508–10.
7. Cichoke AJ. The effect of systemic enzyme therapy on cancer cells and the immune system. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients Nov 1995: 30–32 [review].
8. Wolf M, Ransberger K. Enzyme Therapy. New York: Vantage Press 1972: 135–220 [review].
9. Gullo L. Indication for pancreatic enzyme treatment in non-pancreatic digestive diseases. Digestion 1993;54(suppl 2):43–47.

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DISCLAIMER This information is provided for Educational Purposes Only and has NOT been designed to diagnose, treat or cure any health conditions. Please consult a qualified Health Care Professional with Nutritional Training to diagnose your health conditions and avoid self-diagnosis. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have not evaluated statements about these health topics or any suggested product compositions.