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Vitamins

Not all Vitamins are Created Equal
“Shortcutting” Manufacturing Techniques Produces Vitamins
Unworthy for Human Consumption

PURITY and QUALITY
Educational Medical Considerations for Vitamins
Vitamins Individually Detailed

MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY:
“ID” means Once per Day
“BID” means Twice per Day
“TID” means Three Times per Day
“QID” means Four Times per Day

“Colon Hydrotherapy” is the process of flushing out the Human Colon with warm water under medically controlled conditions. Colon therapy devices will have some type of viewing window to monitor discharges out of the colon. If the viewing window is a small diameter tube, it is easier to see small particles passing through the tube. On multiple occasions I have personally witnessed vitamin tablets, fully intact, being discharged. These patients were literally throwing their vitamins down the toilet.

Some vitamins are manufactured in a way to assure stomach acids are breaking the tablet down. This is NOT the same as being “biologically available” to actual cellular chemistry.

I have been attending Continuing Education Seminars for Doctors since 1993. During our breaks there are many venders waiting to sell product to doctors, for resale in the clinics. Naturopathic Doctors are sticklers on asking why that vender’s product should be considered. The questions we ask is: show us the studies, the biochemical pathways, the ingredients, how the ingredients were both derived and then manufactured. If the vender cannot produce that information, to the satisfaction of to the hundreds of doctors present, they are not invited back for the following seminars.

I can list six manufacturers that return year, after year, after year. (1) Metagenics, (2) Professional Complementary Health Formulas, (3) Standard Process, (4) Biotics Research, (5) Thorne Research, (6) Biogenesis. I have been prescribing Metagenics products to my patients since 1993. If Metagenics does not manufacture what I need, then I choose from one of the other manufacturers.

There are a few more manufactures I use for prescribing purposes who are not able to attend the same Continuing Educational Seminars I attend. I have developed personal relationships with these other companies and trust their products are “Therapeutic Quality.” They are: (7) Barlow Herbal Botanicals, (8) Christopher Herbs, (9) Professional Formulas Goat Whey Protein, (10) Response Formulas Vegan Protein, (11) Wellesley Therapeutics, (12) Douglas Labs, (13) American Nutriceuticals, (14) Progressive Labs, (15) Xymogen, (16) Science Based Nutrition.

Any of these manufacturers produce “Therapeutic Quality” products.

Educational Medical Considerations for Vitamins

Educational Medical Considerations for Multi-Vitamin-Mineral Supplements:
Click on “Visit our Online Store”
Click on “Metagenics”
Click on “Health Categories” (under picture)
Category: “Wellness”
Educational Suggestions:
1) Multigenics: 2 tablets TID
2) Multigenics without Iron: 2 tablets TID
3) Multigenics Chewable: Children two to four years: 1 tablet ID. Children four to seven years: 1 tablet BID. Children over seven and adults: 1 tablet TID
4) Multigenics Intensive Care: 2 tablets QID
5) Multigenics Intensive Care without Iron: 2 tablets QID
6) Multigenics Powder: One rounded scoop ID

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PURITY and QUALITY

There have been a number of recent items in the media regarding dietary supplements. Most recently, the media has reported on the New York Attorney General's office delivering cease and desist letters to four major retailers - Target, GNC, Walgreens, and Walmart - to stop selling certain dietary supplements. The action in New York was taken in response to an investigation conducted by the Attorney General in which 78 bottles of popular botanical supplements were obtained off the shelves of these retailers and subjected to DNA barcoding analysis. This analysis has been claimed to determine that many of the sampled products contained ingredients other than those listed on the label, and in some cases, revealed the major ingredients cited on the label were not present in the product.

Reference: Throne Research, 5 February 2015

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Vitamins Individually Detailed


Vitamin A

Synonym: Retinol

Discovered by: McCollum (1916), et al. (1931)

Antagonists: Mineral Oil

US Adult R.D.A.: 5,000 I.U/day

Therapy Dose Range: 15,000 - 100,000 I.U. / Day

Dietary Sources: Collards, Butternut Squash, Carrots, Beets, Greens, Beet Liver, Turnips, Apples, Cantaloupe, Parsley, Apricots, Broccoli.

Tissue Stores: Liver, Fatty Tissues.

Normal Functions: Involved in normal eyesight; Immune system response; Cell differentiation; Embryonic development; Helps maintain spermatogenesis and placental development; healthy epithelial tissue (the tissue that lines the body’s external and internal surfaces); Helps maintain mucous membranes; Required in at least six different enzyme systems; Involved in bone growth and cartilage formation.

Deficiency states:

Toxicity: Large doses may cause Hypervitaminosis “A” and abnormal bone growth in children.

Exceptional Needs: Patients with Diabetes and Hyperthyroid metabolism have problems converting the Pro- Vitamin Carotenoids; Increased protein intake requires increased Vitamin A.

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Vitamin B1

Synonym: Thiamine

Discovered By: Jansen & Donath (1926)

Antagonists: Antibiotics, Alcohol

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 1.5 mg / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 25 - 75 mg/day

Dietary Source: Brewers yeast, Beef kidney, Ham, Eggs, Plums, Prunes, Raisins, Wheat germ, Whole grains, Legumes, rice husks, Soybean, Poultry, Milk.

Tissue Stores: Heart, Liver, Kidney, and Brain tissue

Normal Functions: Plays a major role in the conversion of protein, carbohydrates and fats into energy production; Plays a role in (Thiamin) detoxification, heart function, and the health of the nervous system; Acts along with Magnesium as co-enzyme cocarboxylase for intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates in all cells; Essential for functioning of nerve tissue because it participates in the synthesis of acetylcholine; Involved in primary steps of Krebs cycle.

Deficiency States: Sub clinical Beriberi; Alcoholism; Dietary deficiency caused by increased ingestion of antagonists in tea / coffee – dietary deficiency leads to increased intake of refined carbohydrates.

Toxicity: Oral supplementation causes few problems; Toxic effects noticed after I.M. injections.

Exceptional Needs: Increased dietary carbohydrates; Pregnancy; Lactation; Cardiac disease; Alcoholism; Aging; Surgery; Hyperemesis Gravidarum; Febrile episodes; Learning disabilities.

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Vitamin B2

Synonym: Riboflavin

Discovered By: Kuhn, et al. (1933)

Antagonists: Antibiotic;, Oral contraceptives

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 1.7 mg / Day

Therapy Dose Range:

Dietary Sources: Organ meats, milk, veal, brewers yeast, eggs, broccoli, nuts, seeds, poultry.

Tissue Stores: Kidney, Heart, Liver tissue

Normal Functions: Assists in the conversion of Tryptophan to Nicotinic acid, he synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids; Helps maintain mucous membrane linings; Regulates the Growth, Thyroid, Adrenal and Pancreatic hormones; Aids in total production of RBC in the body; Promotes healthy eyes and skin; Essential for cellular energy production; Supports neurotransmitter functions, healthy eyes and skin.

Deficiency States: Personality disorders; Cheilosis; Some forms of dermatitis (Seborrhea); Increased light sensitivity; Decreased in Cataracts, some forms of anemia, hair loss and weight loss.

Toxicity: Very low – 560 gm / kg in rats; 22 gm / kg in dogs.

Exceptional Needs: Geriatric patients (aging); Increased intake of protein in diet; Liver disease.

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Vitamin B3

Synonym: Nicotinic Acid, Niacin

Discovered By: Elvehjem, et al. (1937)

Antagonists: Alcohol, Antibiotics

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 14 - 20 mg/day

Therapy Dose Range:

Dietary Sources: Beef liver, chicken, pork, sheep, veal, peanuts, swordfish, tuna, halibut, milk, eggs, corn, and yeast.

Tissue Stores: Liver, brain, and cardiac tissue

Normal Functions: Promotes bile synthesis and the biochemical conversion of macronutrients; Is an active co-enzyme in the Krebs cycle; an active component of G.T.F.; may promote vasodilatation and the breakdown of abnormal lipid levels in the bloodstream.

Deficiency States: Pellagra, certain forms of dermatitis; hyperlipidemia; diabetes; cancer victims and sufferers from chronic degenerative disease processes.

Toxicity: Histamine flush, hyperuricemia, hepatic toxicity, glucose intolerance.

Exceptional Needs: Increased serum lipids; angina pectoris, and other diseases with alteration of the diameter of blood vessels. Decreased absorption in elderly.

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Niacinamide

Synonym: Nicotinamide

Discovered By: Elvehjem, et al. (1937)

Antagonists: Alcohol, Antibiotics

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 13 - 19 mg/day

Therapy Dose Range:

Dietary Sources: Beef liver, Chicken, Pork, Sheep, Veal, Peanuts, Tuna, Halibut, Milk, Eggs, Corn and Milk.

Tissue Stores: Liver, Brain, and Cardiac tissue.

Normal Functions: Co-enzyme essential for the metabolism of macronutrients; is involved in anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in the Krebs Cycle.

Deficiency States: Some forms of osteoarthritis, some forms of neurological / psychological disease (depression, schizophrenia, autism, etc.); migraine headaches.

Toxicity: May cause sedation and hepatic toxicity in large doses.

Exceptional Needs: Chronic degenerative inflammatory disease processes; neurological / psychological disease; deficiencies noted in 30% of institutionalized elderly patients.

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Vitamin B5

Synonym: Pantothenic Acid

Discovered By: Roger Williams (1933-1934)

Antagonists: Methyl Bromide

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 5 - 10 mg / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 1500mg

Dietary Sources: Brewers yeast, Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Liver, Eggs, Herring, Raw peanuts, Wheat bran, Rice, Oats, Carrots, Kale, and Spinach.

Tissue Stores: Liver, Heart, and Kidney tissue.

Normal Functions: Co-enzyme involved in macronutrient metabolism, especially transfer of fatty acids in and out of the mitochondria; breaks down uric acid into urea and ammonia; involved in adrenal hormone production and an active component in the first step of the Krebs Cycle.

Deficiency States:

Toxicity: Mild diarrhea noted after chronic ingestion of 10 - 20 grams of the calcium salt.

Exceptional Needs: Cortisone therapy; increased physical and emotional stress.

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Vitamin B6

Synonym: Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal Phosphate

Discovered By: Szent - Gyorgyi, et al. (1948)

Antagonists: Oral contraceptives, Steroids, Hydralazines

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 2 mg / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 50 - 100 mg / Day

Dietary Sources: Beef liver, Chicken, Pork, Brewers yeast, Peanuts, Herring, Mackerel, Salmon, Soybean, Walnuts, Bananas.

Tissue Stores: Liver, Kidney tissue

Normal Functions: Co-enzyme in over 60 different reactions, especially amino acid synthesis / catabolism / transport; Important in protein synthesis and the manufacture of hormones, red blood cells and enzymes; Plays an important role in hormone regulation, brain function, skin health and is crucial for a healthy immune system; Promotes normal health of the adrenal cortex and the entire nervous system; Regulates acetylcholine production; Involved in tryptophan to niacin conversion.

Deficiency States: Certain hypochromic anemias; Newborn convulsions / seizures; Possibly deficient in patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Huntington Chorea; Important for blood glucose maintenance, immune system and hormone regulation.

Toxicity: Large doses (2 - 3 grams/day) over prolonged periods may cause neurological abnormalities.

Exceptional Needs: Pregnancy; Infancy; Lactation; Patients on oral contraceptives; Cortisone; Increased protein in diet; Decreased absorption in the elderly increases requirements of "B-6".

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Vitamin B12

Synonym: Cobalamin

Discovered By: Rickes, et al., Smith & Parker (1948)

Antagonists: ASA (aspirin), Codeine, Oral Contraceptives, NeoMycin

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 3 - 5 mcg / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 500 - 1000 mcg / Day

Dietary Sources: Liver, Alfalfa, Spinach, Kidney, Pork, Beef, Veal, Egg yolk, Crab, Salmon, Sardines, Herring, Oysters and Clams.

Tissue Stores: 50% to 90% in Liver Tissue

Normal Functions: Co-enzyme in 3 different systems that carry out 11 key conversions in the liver; with Folic Acid regulates the productions of RNA, DNA, WBC's, RBC's and Choline / Methionine synthesis. Maintains the Myelin Sheath around Central Nervous System Structures Plays a role in the processing of carbohydrates, protein and fat in the body.

Deficiency States: Pernicious Anemia; Chronic allergic conditions; some neurological disorders.

Toxicity: Allergic reactions may occur with high doses.

Exceptional Needs: Pregnancy; Lactation; Patients on hormones and birth control pills; Parasitic infections; Vegetarian diets lack adequate "B-12" for maintenance levels.

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Vitamin B15

Synonym: Pangamic Acid, Pangamate

Discovered By: Krebs (1951)

Antagonists: None identified

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 5 - 25 mg / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 125 - 250 mg / Day

Dietary Sources: Brewers yeast, Organ meats, Whole grains, apricot pits, Liver, Bran, Rice.

Tissue Stores: Muscle Tissue

Normal Functions: Co- enzyme involved in respiratory protein synthesis and the regulation of Steroid hormones; Increases oxygen to tissues; Helps detoxify pollutants; Increases WBC activity while increasing normal cellular lifespan.

Deficiency States: No physiologic deficiencies have been identified, although there are some questions of subnormal levels in Hypoxic conditions

Toxicity: Possible Mutagenicity at 50,000 to 100,000 times the recommended dosages

Exceptional Needs: May help to reduce the Lactic Acidosis caused by strenuous physical activity, possibly in Ischemic Cardiac Disease and other conditions of hypoxia

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Bioflavonoids

Synonym: Vitamin "P", Flavones, Flavanols

Discovered By: Szent - Gyorgyi (1936)

Antagonists: None identified

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: None established

Therapy Dose Range: None established

Dietary Sources: Green peppers, Tomatoes, Apricots, Rhubarb, Pulp-rind of citrus fruits.

Tissue Stores: Unknown

Normal Functions: Helps support the integrity of blood vessel walls (capillary integrity); Decreases RBC aggregation; Prevention of stillbirth or neonatal death due to erythroblastosis; May decrease the incidence of cold sores due to herpes virus.

Deficiency States: Edema; Vascular / Capillary hemorrhage; Varicose veins; Increased fluid retention associated with menstrual cycle.

Toxicity: None noted

Exceptional Needs: Easy bruising; Increased fluid retention; Menses; Viral infections.

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Biotin

Synonym: Vitamin "H" Discovered By: Kogi (1948)

Antagonists: Antibiotics, Sulfonamides

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 300 mcg / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 300 - 1000 mcg / Day

Dietary Sources: Yeast, Pork, Liver, Wheat, Corn, Salmon, Mushrooms, Chicken, Egg, Tomatoes, Rice, Soybeans, Wheat bran, Peanuts.

Tissue Stores: Heart, Skin, Muscle and Fatty tissue

Normal Functions: Essential Co-enzyme for a key enzyme called Acetyl-Co-A-Carboxylase, as well as 8 other enzymes that convert Fatty Acids; Maintenance of normal nervous tissue, skin, hair, blood cells and sex organs, also in blood glucose maintenance.

Deficiency States: Seborrhea; Skin dryness/atrophy; Graying of mucus membranes; Depression; Lassitude; Muscle pain; Anorexia; possibly deficient in Ischemic Cardiac Disease, Uremia and Diabetes, because of abnormalities in protein metabolism.

Toxicity: Minimal toxicity; 5 - 10 mg injected daily has no measurable toxic effect in infants.

Exceptional Needs: High doses of antibiotics; increased ingestion of Avidin (raw egg white); patients taking Dilantin and also in patients with chronic protozoan infections.

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Boron

Synonym:

Antagonists:

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 1 – 2 mg / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 2 – 3 / Day

Dietary Sources: Fruits (Apples, Grapes, Peaches), Broccoli, Carrots, green beans, Legumes, and Lettuce.

Tissue Stores: Brain

Normal Functions: Aids in Calcium absorption; Aids in the synthesis of Estrogen and other Steroid hormones.

Deficiency States: Osteoporosis; Childhood bone growth; Menopause

Toxicity: Inhibits Xanthene Oxidase, Alkaline Phosphatase and other oxidase systems; Increased intake may cause Testicular atrophy

Exceptional Needs: Menopausal women; Osteoporosis

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Vitamin C

Synonym: Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbate

Discovered By: Zilva, et al. (1917); Szeni, et al. (1932)

Antagonists: ASA (aspirin), Anticoagulants, Diuretics, Steroids, Sulfa

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 60 mg / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 2,000 - 5,000 mg / Day

Dietary Sources: Green peppers, Parsley, Guava, Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, Strawberries, Citrus fruit, Rosehips, Cranberries, Tomatoes, and Cabbage.

Tissue Stores: Adrenal, Pituitary, Corpus Luteum tissue

Normal Functions: Maintains and repairs connective tissue and, cartilage: Promotes synthesis of Adrenal hormones, Serotonin and Norepinephrine; Aids in healing wounds, and maintenance of capillary fragility; Promotes iron absorption; Helps maintain cholesterol balance; Supports immune system; Essential for the formation and maintenance of collagen (a protein that forms the basis for connective tissue): Plays a role in healthy gums, skin and vision.

Deficiency States: Impaired intake, metabolism and utilization; Chronic bruising; Chronic adrenal fatigue; Chronic immune system deficiency; Chronic allergic phenomena; Maintains efficiency of WBC activity.

Toxicity: Increased intake of vitamin "C" may lead to iron overload and copper deficiency.

Exceptional Needs: Acute / Chronic infections; Toxic overload system of drugs, pollution, or alcohol; Post hospitalization and neonatal rebound scurvy; Requirements increased in cigarette smokers.

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Carnitine

Synonym: Vitamin "Bt"

Discovered By: Franckel (1947)

Antagonists: None identified

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: None established

Therapy Dose Range: 250 – 1,000 mg / Day

Dietary Sources: Muscle meats, Milk, Liver, Yeast

Tissue Stores: Liver and Kidney tissues

Normal Functions: Helps transport Fatty Acids across the inner Mitochondrial membrane where they can be broken down.

Deficiency States: Lipid storage diseases, Diabetes, Muscular dystrophy, and Hyperthyroidism.

Toxicity: None noted.

Exceptional Needs: Diabetes Mellitus, Pregnancy, Fasting conditions and strenuous physical exertion.

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Choline

Synonym: None

Discovered By: Unknown

Antagonists: None specified

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: None established

Therapy Dose Range: 3 – 4 Gm / Day

Dietary Sources: Beef liver, Brewers Yeast, Egg yolk, Wheat germ, Lecithin, Peanuts, Legumes.

Tissue Stores: Liver, Kidney and Fatty tissues.

Normal Functions: Synthesis of Fatty Acids; Required for the synthesis of Acetylcholine; Substitute of phospholipids in cell membranes; Promotes metabolism of fatty deposits in the liver.

Deficiency States: Plays a role as a lipotropic nutrient by aiding in the production and transport of fats from the liver; Supports nerve and brain function; Renal hemorrhage; Cirrhosis; Chronic hepatitis; Possibly decreased in some forms of chronic senility.

Toxicity: High doses may cause dizziness, nausea, diarrhea and fishy odor in some patients.

Exceptional Needs: Hypercholesterolemia; Liver disease; Alcoholism

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Vitamin D

Synonym: Calciferol, Cholecalciferol, and Ergocalciferol

Discovered By: Askew, et al. (1931)

Antagonists: Cortisone, Diuretics, Dilantin, and Mineral Oil

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 200 – 400 I.U. / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 800 – 1,200 I.U. / Day

Dietary Sources: Fish liver oils (Cod / Halibut); Egg yolk; Yeast; Shrimp, Salmon, Tuna, Beef, Pork and Lamb livers.

Tissue Stores: Liver, Skin, and Fatty tissues.

Normal Functions: Maintenance of Plasma Calcium homeostasis in conjunction with Parathyroid hormone; therefore is essential for bone growth and development by regulating the absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus; Aids in the formation of normal bones and teeth; Plays a role in healthy immune function.

Deficiency States: Rickets in children; Osteoporosis / Osteomalacia in adults.

Toxicity: High doses may cause Hypercalcaemia with secondary soft tissue calcifications.

Exceptional Needs: Pregnancy; Absence of sunlight; Decreased Vitamin D enhances the absorption of heavy metals like Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury. Elderly have decreased dietary intake.

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Vitamin E

Synonym: Tocopherol

Discovered By: Evans & Bishop (1922); Fernholz (1938)

Antagonists: Oral contraceptives; Thyroid; Mineral oil.

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 30 I.U. / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 200 – 800 I.U. / Day

Dietary Sources: Asparagus, Broccoli, Cabbage, Chocolate, Vegetable oils, Peanuts, Wheat germ, Whole grains, Yeast.

Tissue Stores: Muscle, Liver, and Fatty tissues.

Normal Functions: Primarily as an antioxidant - prevents oxidation and peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid units of membrane phospholipids; Suppression of fecal mutagens; Extends cell mitosis from normal 50 divisions to 100 to 110 and more divisions. Protects the health and function of he nervous system and supports healthy skin.

Deficiency States: Muscular dystrophies; Certain forms of anemias; Decreased gastrointestinal absorption; Reproductive failure.

Toxicity: High doses may cause G.I. disturbances, Hypertension, and decreased insulin needs.

Exceptional Needs: Increased with high polyunsaturated fat intake; Pregnancy; Lactation; Male infertility; Increased exposure to free radicals; Premature infants; Severe burns.

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Folic Acid

Synonym: Folicin, Folate

Discovered By: Stokstad; P. Feffner, et al. (1943)

Antagonists: Oral contraceptives, Metotrexate, Sulfonamides

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: 400 mcg / Day

Therapy Dose Range: 250 - 1000 mcg/day / Day

Dietary Sources: Kidney, Liver, Beef Heart, Lamb, Pork, Chicken Asparagus, Tuna, Yeast, Alfalfa, Spinach, Whole grains, Beans (Navy, Lentil).

Tissue Stores: Liver tissue.

Normal Functions: Acts as a co-enzyme in the synthesis of DNA / RNA, and Choline, and is important in the synthesis of essential amino acids. Regulates cell division and the transfer of inherited traits from one cell to another. Supports healthy gums, RBC, skin, gastrointestinal tract and immune system.

Deficiency States: Caused by decreased intake, absorption, and metabolism; Some forms of Megaloblastic anemias; B-12 deficiency; Patients on birth control pills; Liver disease; Chronic diarrhea; Weight loss.

Toxicity: Doses above 100mcg obscure (mask) the symptoms of Pernicious Anemia (caused from a lack of Vitamin B-12).

Exceptional Needs: Pregnancy; Alcoholism; Drugs such as Dilantin, Barbiturates and the chemotherapeutics (Methotrexate & Aminopterin); Hemolytic anemias.

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Vitamin K

Synonym: Coagulation vitamin

Discovered By: Dam (1929), Doisy (1935)

Antagonists: Oral Contraceptives, Antibiotics, and ASA (aspirin)

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: None established

Therapy Dose Range: 1 – 2 mg / Day

Dietary Sources: Green leafy vegetables, Beef, Pork, Peas, Cauliflower, Tomatoes, Alfalfa, Oats, Soybeans, Cabbage, Eggs, Cheese, and Wheat germ.

Tissue Stores: Liver and Fatty tissues

Normal Functions: Important co-factor for enzymes that catalyze protein / calcium binding in the synthesis of protein clotting factors (prothrombin); Functions as a liver co-enzyme required for energy metabolism; Aids in the production of bone matrix to bind calcium in bone.

Deficiency States: Hypothrombinemia; Hemorrhagic episodes; Sub-clinical deficiencies during pregnancy and in the newborn are common; Osteoporosis

Toxicity: Thromboembolic phenomena has been identified with over zealous intravenous therapy.

Exceptional Needs: Newborn infants; Pancreatic insufficiency; Patients with hepatitis or poor intestinal absorption; Gall bladder disease; Fad diets, Pregnancy, and Osteoporosis.

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Para Amino-Benzoic Acid

Synonym: PABA

Discovered By: Unknown

Antagonists: None

U.S. Adult R.D.A.: None established

Therapy Dose Range: None established

Dietary Sources: Brewers Yeast, Wheat germ, Yogurt, Fruit.

Tissue Stores: Adrenal, Liver, and Skin tissues.

Normal Functions: Prevention of skin cancers, sunburn, graying of the hair; Essential for Folic Acid metabolism by the intestinal bacteria; Essential co-enzyme in the metabolism of proteins and the formations of RBC's

Deficiency States: None noted.

Toxicity: Excessive intake may cause hypertension, anxiety spells and digestive disorders.

Exceptional Needs: None noted.

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DISCLAIMER This information is provided for Educational Purposes Only and has NOT been designed to diagnose, treat or cure any health conditions. Please consult a qualified Health Care Professional with Nutritional Training to diagnose your health conditions and avoid self-diagnosis. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have not evaluated statements about these health topics or any suggested product compositions.